Slides in this set
Next to no vacations Temperament/braver Dr T. Arnold = produce `Christian Trusting relationship w/ sixth form
Loyaltyy Gentlemen' & to preach good moral
Single sexed (boys) Organised behaviour.
committees Regular play on an
Non - local inter-house basis
Fee paying Wearing of caps for
Boarding captains to those Team/house games = leadership
Expanding worthy for award developments * 'Muscular
Magnificent playing fields Christianity'
For the gentry
KEY CHARACTERISTICS to use
and upper class
OF EARLY 19TH CENTURY Open to
welcoming Stage Two: 1828 1842: Dr. Thomas
PUBLIC SCHOOLS Strict/ harsh discipline reformation
Arnold & Social Control
Stage Three: 1845-1912:
`fagging' (younger boys Flogging (whipping) Thomas Arnold - used games as a way of
to act as personal form of discipline establishing social control trusting
Boys servants for senior relationships w/ 16th form boys were sent to
pupils) SCHOOL CHANGED? bed exhausted.
Gentry All rounded, mind and body
Fee paying Before the Arnoldian reforms & the
Expanding Clarendon Commission Report (1864) Leadership Stage One: 1790 1828: Bullying &
Non Local Endeavour (hard working) Brutality Technical & Social Boys enrolling =
Controlled by trustees Teamwork Developments new games,
Endowed Integrity Hooligan `Melting pot'
Spartan Clarendon commission report - OFSTED of behaviour was
1800s! Big 9 established under Clarendon's the norm Masters had no
Instrument of education
control criticism and advice on public interest in games
`Institutionalised Recreation (went home after
Muscular Christianity Reflection of activity =
popular recreation' duties)
Key words: society organised by boys
era = structure
Gentry - well-born, courteous and well-bred people of high social class.
Melting pod - a place (such as a city or country) where different types of people Classifying 2 extremes in society =
live together and gradually create one community. Eg. Polo, croquet, horse riding High culture of regency period of
Muscular Christianity The combination of manliness and godliness: the benefit fashion
in having a strong and fit body to match a robust and healthy soul. Eg. Football, rugby, boxing Low culture of brutal blood sports…read more
Summary of stage one
Nature of games · Institutionalised popular recreation; a reflection of society;
activities ranged from the childlike to the barbaric.
Status of games · No official rank, position or status for sports and games.
· Informal games were important to most boys while largely ignored
Organisation of · Activities were organised by and for the boys themselves with no
games master involvement outside of the classroom.
· Unplanned, informal or limited levels of organisation characterised
Technical · There were simple, naturally occurring facilities and limited `local'
development rules with simple equipment.
Social · Widespread bullying and brutality with distrust and poor
Values · `Every man for himself'' and survival of fittest with no specific
values linked to games.
Jess R…read more
Summary of stage two
Nature of games · Games were reformed along with the schools in which they existed.
· The phases saw the transition from popular recreation to rational
Status of games · Both the schools and their games grew in status as they opened
themselves up to
the reforms that were happening in society at large.
Organisation of · Schools and games became more organised especially with the
games growth of the House system.
Technical · More regular play on inter-house basis.
development · Games became more structured with specialist kit, equipment and
Social · Improving relationships and restrictions on bullying and brutality.
Values · Games used to achieve social control.
Jess R…read more
Summary of stage three
Nature of games · Games now rationalized and respectable.
Status of games · Games now played obsessively at `cult' proportions by many boys
· They were often compulsory each day.
Organisation of · Highly organised and fully codified at a time when many NGBs were
games being established.
Technical · Fully technically developed with kit and specialist facilities, skill
development rather than force and specialist coaching in some sports, for example
Social · More friendly between boys and masters and less bullying among
relationships the boys.
Values · Games played for the development of character, for increased
loyalty, teamwork, honesty and so on.
Jess R…read more