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Slide 1

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Next to no vacations Temperament/braver Dr T. Arnold = produce `Christian Trusting relationship w/ sixth form
Loyaltyy Gentlemen' & to preach good moral
Single sexed (boys) Organised behaviour.
committees Regular play on an
Non - local inter-house basis
Fee paying Wearing of caps for
Boarding captains to those Team/house games = leadership
Expanding worthy for award developments * 'Muscular
Magnificent playing fields Christianity'
For the gentry
and upper class
welcoming Stage Two: 1828 ­ 1842: Dr. Thomas
PUBLIC SCHOOLS Strict/ harsh discipline reformation
Arnold & Social Control
Hierarchical structure ­
Stage Three: 1845-1912:
Spartan Athleticism
`fagging' (younger boys Flogging (whipping) ­ Thomas Arnold - used games as a way of
to act as personal form of discipline establishing social control ­ trusting
Boys servants for senior relationships w/ 16th form ­ boys were sent to
pupils) SCHOOL CHANGED? bed exhausted.
Gentry All rounded, mind and body
Boarding Temperament
Fee paying Before the Arnoldian reforms & the
Expanding Clarendon Commission Report (1864) Leadership Stage One: 1790 ­ 1828: Bullying &
Non Local Endeavour (hard working) Brutality Technical & Social Boys enrolling =
Controlled by trustees Teamwork Developments new games,
Endowed Integrity Hooligan `Melting pot'
Spartan Clarendon commission report - OFSTED of behaviour was
Cohesion/ Competition
1800s! ­ Big 9 established under Clarendon's the norm Masters had no
Instrument of education
control ­ criticism and advice on public interest in games
schools Sportsmanship
`Institutionalised Recreation (went home after
Muscular Christianity Reflection of activity =
popular recreation' duties)
Key words: society organised by boys
era = structure
Gentry - well-born, courteous and well-bred people of high social class.
Melting pod - a place (such as a city or country) where different types of people Classifying 2 extremes in society =
live together and gradually create one community. Eg. Polo, croquet, horse riding High culture of regency period of
Muscular Christianity ­ The combination of manliness and godliness: the benefit fashion
Jess R
in having a strong and fit body to match a robust and healthy soul. Eg. Football, rugby, boxing Low culture of brutal blood sports…read more

Slide 2

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Summary of stage one
Nature of games · Institutionalised popular recreation; a reflection of society;
activities ranged from the childlike to the barbaric.
Status of games · No official rank, position or status for sports and games.
· Informal games were important to most boys while largely ignored
by teachers.
Organisation of · Activities were organised by and for the boys themselves with no
games master involvement outside of the classroom.
· Unplanned, informal or limited levels of organisation characterised
most activities.
Technical · There were simple, naturally occurring facilities and limited `local'
development rules with simple equipment.
Social · Widespread bullying and brutality with distrust and poor
relationships relationships.
Values · `Every man for himself'' and survival of fittest with no specific
values linked to games.
Jess R…read more

Slide 3

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Summary of stage two
Nature of games · Games were reformed along with the schools in which they existed.
· The phases saw the transition from popular recreation to rational
Status of games · Both the schools and their games grew in status as they opened
themselves up to
the reforms that were happening in society at large.
Organisation of · Schools and games became more organised especially with the
games growth of the House system.
Technical · More regular play on inter-house basis.
development · Games became more structured with specialist kit, equipment and
Social · Improving relationships and restrictions on bullying and brutality.
Values · Games used to achieve social control.
Jess R…read more

Slide 4

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Summary of stage three
Nature of games · Games now rationalized and respectable.
Status of games · Games now played obsessively at `cult' proportions by many boys
and masters.
· They were often compulsory each day.
Organisation of · Highly organised and fully codified at a time when many NGBs were
games being established.
Technical · Fully technically developed with kit and specialist facilities, skill
development rather than force and specialist coaching in some sports, for example
Social · More friendly between boys and masters and less bullying among
relationships the boys.
Values · Games played for the development of character, for increased
loyalty, teamwork, honesty and so on.
Jess R…read more


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