Socio-cultural studies

These are note cards on the last section of the sylabus 

  • Created by: abigail
  • Created on: 19-05-13 13:01

Physical activity

Physical Activity --> Involves walking or doing housework, anything that gets the body moving and the heart rate pumping. 

Physical activity is an umbrella term

  • Physical recreation/outdoor recreation
  • Physical education/oudoor education
  • Sport 

A healthy balanced lifestyle --> Is one of equilibrium, quality and wellness

  • nutritious diet
  • personal hygiene
  • medical needs net
  • hobbies
  • exercise programme
  • control of stress and pressure
  • relationships 
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Benefits of regular participation in physical acti

Physical activity impacts positively on our body, mind and spirit and improving quality of life. 


  • reduced risk of CHD
  • healthy balanced lifestyle can prevent cancer
  • preserve bone density (reduces risk of osteoporosis)
  • improves co-ordination,strength, flexibility and balance (less prone to fractures)
  • BP decreases
  • reduces risk of stroke (effects on hypertension and blood clotting)
  • reduced risk of insomnia
  • longer life
  • relieves anxiety,depression and sensitivity to stress
  • better self-control, self discipline and self esteem 
  • meeting new people 
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Barriers to regular participation in physical acti


  • feeling of inertia
  • self consciousness (girls)
  • lack of confidence
  • lack of inequality 

Opportunity, provision and esteem (chance,facilities and confidence)

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Physical Recreation

What is it?

It is the physical activity with a playful attitude in a recreational environment (for ones own sake not for an extrinsic reward)

Aspects of physical recreation:

  • participation, not standard of performance
  • taking part (not winning) 
  • enjoyment and satisfaction
  • not competitive
  • not media coverage
  • promoting health and developing physical skills in a friendly and enjoyable atmosphere


  • physical skills WHO? amateurs
  • health and well being
  • stress relief
  • sociable 
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Outdoor Recreation

Outdoor recreation--> part of physical refreation

  • takes place in the natural environment (river,ocean,wilderness..)


  • appreciation of natural environment
  • respect for the environment
  • sense of adventure 
  • spiritual experience 
  • value hte nature 
  • natural environment is unpredictable (has risks) 
  • excitement (feeling of exhileration
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Physical Education

Compulsory subject on the national curriculum

Defining Physical education: learning about and through physical activity or physical education is the learning of physical,personal,preparatory and qualitative values through the form of physical activity.


  • opporutinites
  • specialist staff


  • Personal ( enjoyment,confidence,leadership,teamwork,loyalty)+ develops social skills (working in groups and in teams, the concept of fair play...)
  • Physical (skill, health, fitness physique, agility+ improves health and motor skills)
  • preparatory (preperation for leisure or sport or careers
  • Improved quality of life (inluence on lifestyle, balanced healthy lifestyle, mental well being..)
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Outdoor education

Defenition- learining in and about the outdoors and is part of structured school physical education in which positive, useful benefits are formally sought and taught.

  • elemnt of risk and unpredictability

Who? young people

When? during school

Where? natural envrionment/ artificial


  • physical health and skill learning (knowledge of sailing,climbing...)
  • personal and social development (leadership,co-operation,decision making...)
  • prepartion for active leisure 
  • enhancement of quality of life (appreciation of the environment)
  • Real risk= natural disaster such as a flash flood (must be avoided)
  • percieved risk= imagened risk used to give the students a sense of adventure and personal challenge 
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Barriers in outdoor education


  • problem of funding (e.g. coach transport)--> very expensive
  • teachers need specialst training (expensive and time consuming)
  • PE staff may be unwilling to give the time 
  • Health and safety issues (don't want to take on the responsiblity of organising and managing trips)
  • suitable facilities are too far away 
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Definition: organised,competitive and skilful physical activity requiring commitment and fair play

Who - physical prowess (those with skill), those with physical endeavour (efffort+commitment), the elite and some professionals

When - at a designated time (predetermined length of time)

Where - at a designated place (fixed boundaries specialist, purpose built facilites)

How - organisation (RULES), high level of competition, commitment, training and coaching, aesthetic quality, sponsorship

Benefits - intrinsic rewards (personal satisfaction), sense of achievement, for fame and money 


Characteristics: tradition, vigorous physical exertion, competition, administration and behaviour (e.g. commitment)

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Sportsmanship Vs. gamesmanship

Sportsmanship--> this is fair play or observing both written and unwritten rules (showing repsect for others)

  • helps flow and success of event
  • admired by specs and players
  • increased goodwill
  • supports officials decisions (raises status)
  • good example to young people (role models)

Gamesmanship --> use of unconventional but not strictly illegal tactics in order to gain an unfair advantage (stretching rules to the limit)

  • disrupts continuity of event
  • irritates spectators and players
  • friction
  • undermines offiils and sport (lowers status)
  • bad example to young people (bad role models)
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Surviving ethnic sports

The Highland games (athletic competitions)

ROyal shrovetide football (few rules)

Haxey hood games (rugby type game)

Hurling the silver ball

Cheese rolling

Barrel Burning 

Characteristics of the surviving ethnic sports: 

  • traditional
  • social
  • isolated
  • rowdy
  • tourism
  • festival
  • occasional
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Role of nineteenth century public schools


  • middle and upper class boys attended publinc boarding schools (eton)
  • they had a massive impact on the development, promotion and organisation of sport
  • They could build specialst facilities
  • academic staff
  • professional coaches 
  • There was a lot of free time (play for hours each day= raised standards)
  • organised the games themselves (house captain was responsible for teams)
  • headmasters encouraged participation to get the boys out of trouble
  • public shcools had highly organised games programmes (raised amount of sport in society)
  • character builing  
  • participation= good qualities
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Traditional to Amateur

  • Young men took their passion for team games to universaty
  • they then took the passion from after uni and used it in adult life 
  • Christians wanted to create loyal and brave and truthful gentlemen (through sport) 

Traditional to Amateur

Amateurs take part in sport because they love it (they don't want a reward)

Concept of amateurism evolved in 19th century england 

Wealthy upper class excelled in the games (they could afford to spend time away from work playing sport for fun )

Working class couldn't --> therefore if the working class man was good enough he could play full time for payment (becoming professional) 

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United states of America

CAPITALIST (encourages individuals to accumilate wealth and influneces the nature in sport)

IT is a profit orientaged business 

America was seen as a new land of opportunity (spirti of enterprise and drive)

  • Win ethic (cannot come second)
  • Outcome is the most important thing
  • Win at all costs moto 


  • business
  • professional sport dominates the society (competitve nature)
  • private and corporate businesses use sport to promote products
  • school sport attracts sponsorship (scholarships)
  • college players have top level coaching and support (under pressure, funded by tv)
  • best college athletes are drafted into professional sport
  • govern procedures influence rules
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American Dream

Rich and famous sports stars= american dream

Idea that prosperity depends on your own ability and hard work  ( it is the dream of success, fredom of equality and of security) 


Anyone has the chance of being a success (sport is the vehile for success) 

chance to be free of discrimination imposed by race, gender and ethnicity. 

American Football 

  • most popular sport in USA
  • physical contact (intrecate planning and stratgic moves and tactics)
  • IVy league (so rough it was banned)
  • universaties competed in the first official game (violent + conflict for survival)
  • Characteristics= toughness, endeavour ferocious courage 
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American Football and Commercialisation

  • multi billion dollar business
  • teams are privatley or publically owned
  • bought as a franchise
  • competition between TV voverage rights inflates cost of NFL franchises 
  • 8 groups in total
  • super bowl (largest food consumption)
  • become the shocase for expesnive adverts 
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Young nation fillled with aboriginal peoples, it is massive, has colonial influence and lots of immigration. 

Not many people live inland 

Colonialist came to australia and brought the british way of life, Australia adopted lots of english games (many colonial values)

Captain Cook (influx of british convicts)--> lots of immmigrints 

Australia is mulitculturalist (attempt to end discrimination)

Nature of sport in australia:

  • integral part of australia (young)
  • sport is a national passion/obsession
  • 90% austtralians participate in sport
  • sydney olympics were a national triumph
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High status of sport in Australia


  • Manliness strength and bush culture (rugged and demanding sports)
  • favourable climate (good weather)
  • outdoor life is the norm (helath conscious society)
  • political support (governments invest heavily in sport)
  • tradition of success (role models, high profile)
  • fashionable and encouraged 
  • healthy economy (high disposable income)
  • sport and PE have a high status in schools and the media supports the sport 

Aussi rules football

  • reflects australian society
  • fair play
  • large cricket ovals (22 players)
  • TOm wills (english born, winter training for crickiters)
  • mixture of rugby and gaylic football
  • aborigionals are the major players 
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Aussi rules continued...

Shaping the game

  • austalians living abroad (spread the news)
  • festival exhibitions
  • taught and played in schools (intrest for young people)
  • exposure in the media 
  • appeals to all

Commercialsim and impact of the media

  • most highly attented spectator sport in australia
  • interest in the game is hihg
  • multi million dollar business
  • media promotion
  • it is a business enterprise
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UK sport: 

It is responsible for developing elite sport in the uk and is funded by DCMS (recieves money from the government)

What does it do?

  • manages and distributes public investment
  • promotes ethical standards of behaviour
  • coordinates programmes to attract sporting events
  • helps elite performers
  • coordinates other organisations
  • work with home country sports councils
  • strategic direction
  • evaluates work of NGBS 
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National institutes of sport

What are they? they are a network of satellite centres that gives practical support to all the elite perforers, there are home country sports institutes in the UK

Devolved institutes

The english institue of sport--> it provides high quality practical support, works closely with NGB performance coaches, grant funded (not repsonsible for building the facilities)

Sport institute of northern ireland --> provides high quality pracitcal support to elite athletes, it is in partnership for universaties

Scottish institute of sport --> high quality practical support to elite athletes, focuses on high perfomrance

Welsh insitute of sport --> provides world class facilites and support 

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Home country organisations

Sport England:

Government agency responsible for community sport (funded by national lottery)

What does it want?

  • get people active
  • get peopel to start exercising
  • 30 minutes per day
  • ensure young people stay in school

What does sport england do ?

  • investes and advises community sport for everyone
  • increases opportunities to take part in community sport
  • promotes volunteering,coaching and leadership
  • works with NGB's
  • creates and funds initiatives 
  • develps school links
  • funding elite performers
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National Governing bodies

Each sport is controlled by an NGB

What do they do?

  • encourage all participation
  • select performers
  • train coaches and officials
  • control finance of sport
  • maintain rules and regulations
  • work with other organisations
  • coordinate with member clubs
  • organise local and national competitions
  • promote sport 
  • select national squads
  • develop talent 

e.f. FA 

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