Public Health Revision

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  • Created on: 02-09-13 17:53
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Public Health
Public health governments
organi
se syst
e ms
to
prot
ect
t
hei
r
peopl
e f
rom di
sease.
This
i
ncl
u de s
providi
ng f
resh
w at
er,
sewers
and hospi
tal
s,
and
maki
ng
laws t
o f
orce
towns and
people t
o tr
y
to
prevent
di
sease spr
eading.
Romans
The st
ate
took
responsibi
li
ty
for
essenti
als
li
ke t
he pr
o vi
si
on
of
w at
e r
and
ma de
consi
derabl
e progr
e ss
w i
th
the pr
ovisi
on of
aqueducts
and sewers.
How ever
,
the
e nvi
ronme nt
could
sti
ll
be
unhealt
hy and t
he River
Tib er
became
pol
lut
ed f
rom sew age
d umpe d
in
it
.
A l
so,
people
w i
thout
pri
vate
latr ines
dump ed
thei
r
chamber pot
s i
n t
he st
reets
very
u nhygi
enic.
The
R oma ns
did
not ma na ge
to
drai
n
t
he marshes ar
oun d
R ome
and they
became
the home of
ma l
ari
a.
Middle Ages: 11001400
I
n London,
the ci
ty
authori
ti
es and pri
vate
indi vi
d ua ls
constant
ly
tri
ed t
o i
mp rove
the
water
suppl
y.
T here
w er
e att
e mp ts
to keep
th e s t
ree t
clean
but
it
wa s
a l
osing
b att
le
t
h
unt
il
t
he st
ate t
ook contr
ol
in
th e 19 cent
u r
y.
Si
n ce
the
R oma n
peri
o d
there
w as
lit
tl
e pr
og res s
in
publi
c heal
th
provisi
on,
eve n
r
egress.
This
w as
du e
to
the R oma n emp i
re
b eing d estr
oyed by
the Anglo
Sa xo ns
et
c.
so al
l
thei
r work
w as
lost
. I
n t
he Midd l
e Ag e s t
h e
probl
ems
w ere
always gr
e ater
t
han t
h e
solut
ions.
The healt
h iest
areas t
o l
ive
w ere
in
the
country
or i
n monaste ri
es
where
cleanl
iness was consi
d ered t
o
be i
mp o rta nt
.
Aft
er
the Roma n
e r
a,
the popu l
a t
ion moved to
ru ral areas
so publ
ic
hea l
th
w as
n ot
such
a bi
g probl
em unt
il
t
he E arly
Mo dern Age .
River
s were
p ol
lut
ed and wate r
supp l
y was po o r
a s l
e ad
pipes
w er
e used t
o bri
n g
water
f
rom the
R i
ver Tyburn.
Li
tt
le
recognit
ion
o f
t
he need to i
mp rove sani
ta tion .
Cesspit
s were
e xt
reme l
y unhy gi
en i
c,
as were ea rt
h cl
osets
and chamb er
pots.
Renaissance: 14001700
The
go ver
nme nt
tri
ed t
o st
op t
h e 1665
p lagu e f
rom spreading.
London t
heatr
es were
cl
osed and
other
large
gatheri
n gs
banne d .
Ba rrel
s of
t
ar
w er
e
burned i
n t
he st
reet
s
and
houses wh er
e t
h er
e was plague
w er e
sh u t
up
an d
a r
ed cross
paint
ed on
the
door
.
T he
dea d
w er
e col
lect
ed da i
l
y on c ar
ts and
buried
in
ma ss
graves.
Some
local
aut
hori
ti
es t
o ok
acti
on but
i
t
w as l
imit
ed.
The
acti
o ns
taken by
the
gov.
to deal
w i
th
the pl
ague were i
neff
ecti
ve as
people
did
not
know how di
sea se
spread.
Publ
ic
he al
th
did
n ot
i
mp r
ove mu ch due to:
la ck
of
kn owl
edge ,
l
ack of
under
standi
ng,
not
enough mon ey
and l
aissez f
air
e at
ti
tu de.

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Early Modern Age: 17501900
Cause
of
probl
ems:
gr
ow i
ng
popul
ati
on,
growth
of
fact
ories,
i
ndust
ri
ali
sat
ion,
mi
grat
ion
of
popul
ati
on,
ur
bani
sat
ion
and
growth
of
dir
t
and di
sease.
There
w as
no cont
rol of
t
he r
api
d gr
ow t
h of
t
ow ns
and t
he
growi
ng popul
ati
on
did
not
hel
p
ei
ther.…read more

Page 3

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I
n 1848
there was ano ther
chol
e r
a epi
demic
an d
thi
s encour
a ged
the
g over
nme nt
t
o
consi
der
C hadwick'
s i
d eas.
They r
esponded
b y
passi
n g
the
P ubl
ic
H eal
th
A ct
whi
ch
set
up
a Ge ner
a l
Board of
Heal
th and
all
owed t
o wns
to be
cle aner
.…read more

Page 4

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Publ
ic
H eal
th
Act
consol
idat
ed
exi
sti
ng
heal
th
laws.
I
n t
he
1870s
Joseph
C hamberl
ain,
mayor of
B i
rmi
ngham,
car
ri
ed
out
sever
al
ref
orms
i
ncl
udi
ng
the
demo l
i
ti
on of
40
acres of
sl
ums .…read more

Page 5

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Li
fe
expect
ancy:
women=62,
men=58
I
mpr
ovement
s:
secondary
school
p upi
ls
recei
ved medical
i
nspecti
ons
heal
th
cli
nics
ga ve
vaccinat
ions
and sol
d baby
food ch eapl
y
many hospit
als
w er
e brought
under
the
control
of
l
ocal
autho r
it
ies
1934
fr
ee milk
for
poor
primary
school
chi
ldren
to
stop
lack
o f
calc i
um
1939 1945
WWI I.…read more

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