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1. ASCH: opinions and social pressure

Context
JENNESS- Jenness put beans in a jar and asked participants to judge how many
beans were in there. He then put participants into groups and asked them to
complete the task again.
Jenness found that the participants conformed to a group norm (a…

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ASCH found:
group size raises conformity
a truthful confederate reduced pressure to conform
a inaccurate confederate reduced pressure to conform

conclusions:
strong tendency to conform under pressure
group agreement is necessary to social life
the effect of conformity depends on the extent of the majority

methodology:
LAB EXPERIMENT
Strengths: variables…

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2. MILGRAM-study of obedience

Context:
Milgram is jewish
Interested by the nazi's defence at the Nuremburg trials after the holocaust
Nazi's claimed that they were `simply following orders'
The theory that `germans are different' was suggested

Aims:
MILGRAM wanted to test the `Germans are different' theory
He wanted to see…

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findings:
MILGRAM asked 14 yale students to predict the results they said that 0-3% would
administer full 450 volts
65% administered full 450 volts
12.5% refused after 300 volts
0% stopped before 300 volts
35% defied the experimenters authority

participants showed : nerves, sweating, biting their lip,nervous laughter
3 participants…

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3. Rahe , Mahan, Arthur: health change
Context
SELYE in 1930's suggested a link between stress + illness with his work on rats
HAWKINS worked in a TB sanatorium and observed poor people suffered worse,
he suggested this was due to emotional stress making them more vulnerable
RAHE made the…

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2664 men
marine personnel
average age 22

participants were required by the military to fill in their version of the SRE which
documented significant life changes
each participant completed the SRE every 6 months over a two year period
each life change was given life change units that reflects the…

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CONTROL: double blind study eliminates demand characteristics and experimenter bias


Alternative evidence

RUBIN used the SRE on naval aviators and found a relationship between stress
and illness, this suppors RAHE, MAHAN AND ARTHUR as they found the same
results

DELONGIS found a 0.59 correlation between minor hastles and next day…

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4. Bennett, Levy,Marteau- Fear of animals

Context
SELIGMAN proposed the concept of biological preparedness, this is a inherited
disposition to fear certain animals

3 observations were made:
Non random distribution of fears (snakes and spiders etc.)
Not matched by traumatic experiences
Fears peak in early life (childhood)

MINEKA found wild…

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men in group 1 rated themselves less fearful than women but just as responsive
to the characteristics in group 2 (0.96 correlation)

correlations:
ugliness and nearness 0.87
ugliness and fear 0.82
sliminess and nearness 0.77

conclusions
perceived harmfulness causes fear
perceived characteristics and ugliness contribute to fear
findings could help…

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5. Gardner + Gardner- teaching a chimp sign language

Context
CHOMSKY said humans have the language acquisition device which allows
us to acquire language, so theoretically animals should not be able to learn human
language

HAYES AND HAYES woked with a chimp called VICKI but could only teach it
4…

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