PY3 research methods

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What is Spearman's rank used for?
To show correlation, Ordinal data, Related measures
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What is Chi Squared used for?
Nominal data, Independent measures, Difference between variables
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Which statistical tests have to be higher than table value to be significant?
Chi squared & Spearman's rank
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Which statistical tests have to be lower than table value to be significant?
Sign Test, Wilcoxon signed ranks, Mann Witney U
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What is the Sign Test used for?
Difference, Nominal data, Related measures
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What is Wilcoxon Signed Ranks used for?
Difference, Ordinal data, Related measures
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What is Mann Witney U used for?
Ordinal data, Independant measures, Difference
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What are the 6 sampling methods?
Random, Volunteer, Opportunity, Stratified, Systematic, Quota
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What is random sampling?
Everyone has an equal chance of being selected. Eg Random number generator
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What is Volunteer sampling?
People self selecting themselves to take part due to an advertisement/ appeal and they respond
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What is Opportunity sampling?
Using whoever is easily available
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What is Stratified sampling?
Mathematically using a proportional amount of ppts per group= even representation
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What is Systematic sampling?
Having a system to choose participants. Eg every 5th person
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What is Quota sampling?
Selecting ppts according to frequency in population, groups selected by volunteering
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What does reliablilty mean?
The quality of measure, how many times would we get the same results if repeated
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What in inter-rater reliability?
The degree to which other human raters give consistent judgements for behaviour
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What is Test re-test?
Administering a test twice at two different points in time. This type of reliability assumes that there will be no change in the results
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What is Split half test?
A questionnaire split into 2 halves asking similar questions reworded. Reliable if results are the same both sides
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Define Validity
The extent to which you are testing what is meant to be tested
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What is internal validity?
Inside study- did aim get tested
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What is external validity?
Ecological validity- application of findings to outside
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What is concurrent validity?
If the results match previous experiments results
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What is construct validity?
Measuring all aspects of test
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What is face validity?
How it reflects real life
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What is Content validity?
If what you're measuring is being measured
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What does Operationalisation mean?
Explaining how each variable would be measured
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What in an Independent Variable?
The thing being manipulated
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What is a Dependent variable?
The thing being measured
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What are Co-variables?
Variables which occur together (only in correlation)
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What are Confounding variables?
Things which could affected the results as overlooked
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What are Extraneous variables?
Things which could affect the results if overlooked
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What are the 3 types of Hypotheses?
Directional, Non-directional, Null
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What is a Directional Hypothesis?
Where there is a clear hypothesis (1 tailed)
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What is a non-directional hypothesis?
Where there is an unclear hypothesis (2 tailed)
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What is a Null hypothesis?
Stating nothing will happen unless by chance
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Name the Scientific Methods
Experiments, Case Studies, Questionnaires, Observations, Interviews, Correlation
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Name and describe the 3 types of Experiments
Lab (in a controlled environment) Field (in a natural environment, still control IV) Natural (completely natural environment, no control)
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Describe Covert Observations
Undercover observation, perhaps experimenter takes part in experiment
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Describe Overt Observations
Observation is known about, perhaps the experimenter watches from a camera
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What are the general Levels of Significance?
5% or 0.05. Smaller number= greater significance but more challenging to achieve significant result as there is a smaller margin of error
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What is a Type 1 Error?
Rejecting a hypothesis that is true (level of significance too high)
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What is Type 2 Error?
Accepting a Null hypothesis which is not true (level of significance too low)
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What is Informed Consent
Giving information on the true purpose and nature of a study so ppts can make a valid judgement on whether to participate (gives demand characteristics)
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How could the issue of Informed Consent be dealt with?
Ppts sign a consent form + given right to withdraw. If not possible retrospective or presumptive consent can be used
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What is retrospective consent?
Where the participant gives consent after the debrief of the experiment- can lead to withdrawal of results
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What is Presumptive consent?
Asking a group of similar people whether or not they would participate
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What is Deception?
Ppts not told true aims of study by withholding info or lying (less likely to show demand characteristics)
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How could the issue of Deception be dealt with?
Seeking approval from ethical committee, giving debrief (may lead to withdrawal of results)
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What is a Right To Withdraw?
The ablility to decline to continue participation in a study (makes ppts more willing to participate as no pressure= valid results)
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How could the issue of IRight to Withdraw be dealt with?
Emphasise at start of study and throughout, still reward regardless (dont want ppts to withdraw)
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What is Protection from Harm?
The protection from any negative side effects or physical or psychological harm eg Embarrassment (reassured= better relationship)
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How could the issue of Protection from harm be dealt with?
Study stopped as soon as harm apparent & debrief (can be unpredictable or inevitable) no harm than everyday life
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What is Confidentiality?
Privacy of personal information, trusting it will be protected (gives peace of mind and encourages willing ppts)
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How could the issue of Confidentiality be dealt with?
Names of ppts not to be recorded, fake names or numbers used instead, info secured safely- ppts shouldn't be able to recognise results (can be difficult- case studies)
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What is Privacy?
Person's right to control information about themselves and not feel invaded (reassures ppts- more in control)
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How could the issue of Privacy be dealt with?
Gain presumptive consent. Do not observe without consent unless expected. (may get demand characteristics with knowledge)
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What must collegues do in an experiment?
Give advice where necessary, oversee and advise. Intervene if necessary.
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Give 4 examples of Pyschology in the Media
Big Brother, Paul Gasgoine documentary, Psychologies Magazine, A child of our time
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Name 2 ethical issues associated with Lab studies
Deception, Lack of informed consent
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Name 2 ethical issues associated with Observations
Privacy, Informed consent
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Name 2 ethical issues associated with Interviews
Privacy, Confidentiality
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Why do the BPS enforce these guidelines?
To ensure all participants are unaffected and nothing happens that would change their lives.
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What are the 5 advantages of using the Scientific Method?
It's Empirical, Objective, Falsifiable, Controlled, Replicatable
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What are the 4 disadvantages of using the Scientific Method?
It lacks Validity, Reductionist, Nomothetic, can be Unethical
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How is the Scientific Method being Empirical an advantage?
People can make claims about the truth or benefit only through empirical evidence as it's true and can be recorded (eg, Selye's GAS same treatments)
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How is the Scientific Method being Objective an advantage?
It's not affected by the expectations of the researcher- makes it more Valid (eg Gardener and Gardener independent observers)
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How is the Scientific Method being Falsifiable an advantage?
It has been proved right by rejecting a null hypothesis so suggests it's right (eg Milgram proved his results)
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How is the Scientific Method being Controlled an advantage?
Demonstates causal relationships, if not we cant be sure that one factor is the cause of another= valid (eg Loftus and Palmer directly Leading Qs affect memory)
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How is the Scientific Method being Replicatable an advantage?
It demonstrates validity therefore if you obtain same outcome in both experiments confirms truth of original results (eg Asch)
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How does Scientific Method lack Validity?
Over controlled situations create Demand Characteristics- behaviour not represent natural behaviour so cant be generalised= affect reliability (eg Loftus and Palmer- not real car crash)
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How is the Scientific Method being Reductionist a disadvantage?
It ignores other factors that might contribute to behaviour (eg Rosenhan only psychiatrists)
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How is the Scientific Method being Nomothetic a disadvantage?
It assumes we're all the same when we're not- ignores individual differences (eg Gibson and Walk= small sample)
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How is the Scientific Method being Unethical a disadvantage?
BPS have guidelines often creating some ethical cost from using scientific method ranging from minor to major (eg Milgram and Loftus and Palmer)
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Give an example of an early theory that wasn't scientific
The Psychodyamic theory
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Give an example of an early theory that is scientific
The Cognitive/Biological
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How is the internal validity affected in the Scientific method?
Demand characteristics, Investigator Bias, Social desirability
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Name an advantage and disadvantage of Lab studies
A= Controlled, D= Low Ecological Validity
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Name an advantage and disadvantage of Field Studies
A= More Natural, D= Hard to repeat
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Name an advantage and disadvantage of Observations
A= High Ecological Validity, D= Ethical Issues
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What are the 4 BPS guidelines on research?
Respect, Scientific Value, Social Responsibility, Maximise Benefit Minimise Harm
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What are the 3 R's when referring to Non-Human ppts?
Replace, Reduce, Refine
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What do the 3 R's refer to?
Replacing animals and using non-sentient alternatives where possible, reducing number of animals, refining procedures to minimise harm
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Give 2 examples of abiding by the 3 R's
Sniffy the Virtual Rat, Ratlife
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Which act covers the ethics of non human ppts?
Animal (Scientific Procedures) act 1986
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Which act covers work in the UK with a more general duty of care?
Animal welfare act 2006
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What is a Project License?
A license to perform experiments specifying the species, number and combinations of procedures used
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When is a Project License granted?
After weighing costs and benefits of program (in welfare terms). License holder responsible for ensuring it is legal by Animals act
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Where must procedures be carried out?
A registered establishment after completing training courses
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Why is strain and species important?
To know whether it has already been used so can ensure minimal suffering whilst still obtaining results
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How does variation affect results in animals?
Imbred reduce number required but also generality, outbred means greater variation
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Where could used animals go?
Collegues for further study or breeding
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What must be ensured if animals are to die during experiments?
It must be done humanely, painlessly and following the Acts (1986) must be confirmed before disposal
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When may animals be used in teaching?
Primarily at university level, students encouraged to form own ethical assessments
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Who's responsibilty is it to ensure animals rights are being met in teaching?
The Project License holder (teacher) must ensure competance in students
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Give an example of unethical animal use
Selye's Rats
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Card 2

Front

What is Chi Squared used for?

Back

Nominal data, Independent measures, Difference between variables

Card 3

Front

Which statistical tests have to be higher than table value to be significant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which statistical tests have to be lower than table value to be significant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the Sign Test used for?

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