PY3 key terms

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 17-04-13 10:21
Confounding/extraneous variable
A variable that is not the intended IV but which has an effect on the DV
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IV
An event that is directly manipulated by an experimenter in order to test its effect on another variable, the DV
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DV
A measurable outcome of the action of the IV
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Reliability
A measure of consistency both within a set of scores or items and also over time so that it is possible to obtain the same results on subsequent occasions
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Internal Reliability
A measure of the extent to which something is consistent within itself.
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External Reliability
The extent to which a measure varies from one use to another. Can be tested in questionnaires by the test retest method which involves testing the same p.s twice over a period of time on the same test. Similar scores suggest external reliability
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Inter observer reliability
The extent to which there is agreement between two or more observers involved in observation of behaviour
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Validity
Refers to the legitimacy of a study, the extent to which the findings can be applied beyond research setting
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Content validity
A means of assessing the validity or true-ness of a psychological test. Aims to demonstrate that the content (e.g questions) of the test represents the area of interest
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Concurrent validity
A means of establishing validity by comparing an existing questionnaire/test with the one you are interested in
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Construct validity
A means of assessing the validity or trueness of a psychological test by demonstrating the extent to which performance on the test measures a belief
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Internal validity
Whether a study has tested what it has set out to test; the degree to which the observed effect was due to the experimental manipulation rather than other factors.
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External validity
The degree to which research findings can be generalised to other settings (eco. validity) and other groups of people (pop. validity) and over time (historical validity)
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Repeated measures design
An experimental design where each p.s takes part in every condition under test
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Matched pairs design
An experimental design where p.s who are alike in terms of key variables (eg age and IQ) are paired. One member of each pair is put into the experimental group and the other is put in the control group
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Order effects
Ina repeated measures design, an extraneous variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented e.g practice or fatigue effects
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Opportunity sample
A group of p.s produced by selecting people who are most easily available at the time
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Self selected (volunteer) sample
A sampling technique that relies solely on people who chose to respond to requests from the environment
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Random sample
A group of p.s chosen in a way that every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected
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Systematic sample
A method of obtaining a representative sample by selecting every nth person
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Stratified sample
Groups of p.s selected according to their frequency within the population. Within each strata p.s are chosen randomly
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Quota sample
Groups of p.s are selected according to their frequency within the population. P.s are selected using opportunity sampling
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Event sampling
An observational technique in which a count is kept of the number of times a certain behaviour occurs
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Time sampling
An observational technique in which the observer records behaviour in a recorded time frame
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Controlled observation
An observation which is carried out under artificial/fixed/contrived conditions
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Naturalistic observation
The researcher merely observes behaviour in a real life setting and does not interfere in any way,
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Structured observation
An observer uses behavioural categories to control and structure what is observed
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Unstructured observation
An observer records all relevant behaviour and has no system
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Overt observation
An observational technique where observations are open. This means the p.s know they are being observed
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Covert observation
Observing people without their knowledge as knowing that someone is observing behaviour is likely to alter your behaviour
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Qualitative data
Data that expresses the quality of things involving descriptions, words and meanings.
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Quantitative data
Data that represents e.g how much there are of something i.e behaviour is measured/ expressed in number or quantities
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Empirical data
Relating to a method of gaining knowledge which relies on direct observation or testing
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Informed consent
A decision to participate based on comprehensive info. given to potential p.s in research regarding the nature and purpose of the research and their role within it.
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Deception
Not telling p.s the true aims of a study which means they cannot give full informed consent
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Right to withdraw
The right of the p.s to refuse to continue with participation of a study if they are uncomfortable in any way, and to refuse permission for the researcher to use any data produced before they withdrew
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Confidentiality
A p.s right to have personal info protected
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Privacy
The zone of inaccessibility of mind or body and the trust that this will not be invaded. A persons right to control the flow of info about themselves
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Presumptive consent
A method of dealing with lack of informed consent and deception by asking a group of p.s who are similar to the p.s whether they would consent to participate in the stuyd. If these people would consent its presumed that the real p.s would
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Ethical committee
A group of people within a research institution that must approve a study before it begins
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Debriefing
A post research interview or questionnaire designed to inform p.s of the true nature of the study and to restore them to the same state they were in at the start of the study
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Hypothesis
A precise and testable statement about the assumed relationship between variables
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Null hypothesis
An assumption that there is no relationship in the population from which a sample is taken with respect to the variables being studied
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Alternative hypothesis
A testable statement about the relationship between two variables
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Directional hypothesis
States which of the conditions or groups of p.s will be higher scoring
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Non directional hypothesis
Predicts that there will be a difference between two conditions or two groups of p.s, without stating which condition will produce higher scores
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One tailed hypothesis
When a hypothesis predicts the expected direction of the results it is referred to as a one tailed hypothesis
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Two tailed hypothesis
When your prediction does not specify a direction, we say you have a two tailed hypothesis
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Nominal data
A level of measurement where data are in separate categories
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Ordinal data
A level of measurement where data is organised in some way
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Interval data
A level of measurement where units of equal intervals are used such as when counting correct answers
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Ratio data
A measurement where there is a true zero point and equal intervals between units e.g weight
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Mean
An arithmetic average of a group of scores, taking the values of all the data into account
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Mode
The most frequently occurring score in a data set
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Median
The middle value in a set of scores when they are placed in rank order
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Range
The difference between the highest and lowest score in a data set
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Standard deviation
A measure of dispersion that shows the amount of variation in a set of scores. It assesses the spread of data around the mean
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Measures of dispersion
Measures how spread out the set of data is. Descriptive statistics that describe how similar a set of scores are to each other
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Nomothetic approach
An approach to research that focuses more on general laws of behaviour than on the individual
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Idiographic approach
An approach to research that focuses more on the individual case as a means of understanding behaviour rather than formulating general laws of behaviour
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Case study
A research method that involves detailed study of a single individual, institute or event
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Coding system
A systematic method for recording in which individual behaviours are given a code for ease of recording
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Content analysis
A kind of observational study in which behavuiour is observed indirectly or written such as interviews, books or TV programmes
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Correlational analysis
Determining the extent of a relationship between two variables; e.g zero correlation, negative correlation, positive correlation
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Experimenter effect
Anything the experimenter does that has an effect on a participants performance in a study, other than what was expected
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Demand characteristics
A cue that makes p.s aware of what the researcher expects to find or how p.s are expected to behave. These can change the outcome of a study because p.s will often change their behaviour to conform to the expectations
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Leading questions
A question that either by its form or content suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads him/her to the desired answer
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Meta analysis
The findings from a number of different studies used to reach a general conclusion about a particular hypothesis
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Mundane realism
Refers to how well a study mirrors the real world
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Operationalisation
Defining variables in a form that can be tested
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Pilot studies
A small scale trial of a study run to test any aspect of the design, with a view of making improvements
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Social desirability bias
A tendency for respondents to answer questions in a way that they think will present them in a better light
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IV

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An event that is directly manipulated by an experimenter in order to test its effect on another variable, the DV

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DV

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Reliability

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Internal Reliability

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craig t stanley

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heskey

josh

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twist and sound

Nikole

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This helped so much! thanks <3

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