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Baron-Cohen (Autism)
Cognitive approach. Snaphsot study.

Autism is associated with:

Difficulties with social interaction
Difficulties with verbal and non-verbal communication
Lack of imaginative play

Aim of the study: to investigate if high functioning adults with autism or Asperger
syndrome would be impaired on a theory of mind test called the…

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Summary of procedure:

Subjects were tested individually in either a quiet room in their own home, the
researcher's clinic or a university lab
Eyes task consisted of magazine photos of the eye region (25 different faces)
Each picture shown for 3 seconds- forced choice of 2 mental states written below…

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Ethics- overall very ethical- could be argues that laboratory and clinical
environment could cause anxiety amongst the autistic adults as it was an unnatural
situation (protection against mental harm)
Validity- high because it was compared the Happe's Strange Stories task- pattern in
results of this mirrored the pattern in…

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Loftus and Palmer (eyewitness testimony)
Cognitive approach. Snapshot study.

Aim: to investigate the effect of leading questions on the memory of an event.

Research method: Laboratory experiment

Strength- very high level of control over extraneous variables so easier to infer a
cause and effect relationship between the IV (verb used)…

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Summary of procedure: Experiment 2

150 students viewed a short film which contained a scene of a car accident
There were 3 conditions relating to the speed of the car- smashed, hit and not
One week later these participants returned- critical question was asked- "Did you
see any broken…

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Possible changes to study:

Increase ecological validity- make participants unprepared for clips and set a
reward system after to heighten incentive- could lead to fall or rise in accuracy
Use wider age range in participants- findings could be generalised- results may

Savage-Rumbaugh (animal language)
Cognitive approach. Longitudinal Study.


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Kanzi and Mulika understood lexigrams far more easily than Austin and Sherman-
more spontaneous without the need of training- Kanzi learnt 46 words and Mulika
Kanzi and Mulika far more capable of comprehending English words
Kanzi and Mulika used the lexigram far more specifically
Kanzi was able to…

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Displacement- ability to speak about past, present and future
Arbitrariness- no natural connection between word or sound to the thing it denotes
Productivity- ability to invent new signals to describe new ideas
Cultural transmission- language used around us or by family is the language we

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Samuel and Bryant (conservation)
Developmental approach. Snapshot study.

Aim: to investigate whether children could conserve at a younger age than predicted by
Piaget by altering the method used by Piaget.

Research method: Lab experiment

Strength- high control over extraneous variables and able to eliminate possible
confounding variables so a relevant…

Page 10

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worded differently- controlled be standardising instructions designed by

Summary of procedure:

Each group of 63 were divided into 3 sub-groups with different conditions:
Standard, one judgement and fixed array
Standard- two question task as carried out by Piaget- children asked about the size
of the objects before and after…


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