OCR A2 health and clinical psychology notes

Health and Clinical psychology

Healthy Living:

1.Theories of health belief:

1)Becker (1978) – Health Belief Model

2)Rotter (1966) – Locus of Control

3)Bandura (1977)– Self-efficacy

2. Methods of health promotion and supporting evidence:

1)Cowpe (1989) – Media Campaign

2)Dannenberg (1993) – Legislation

3)Janis and Feshbach (1953) – Fear Arousal

3.Features of adherence to medical regimes and supporting evidence:

1)Bulpitt and Fletcher (1988) – Reasons for non-adherence: (cognitive rational non-                adherence)

2)Lustman (2000) – Measures of non-adherence: physiological

3)Watt et al (2003)  â€“ Improving – Behavioural methods (Funhaler)


1.Causes of stress:

1)Johansson et al., (1978) – Work

2)Kanner (1981) – Hassles and Life Events

3)Geer and Maisel (1972) – Lack of Control

2.Methods of measuring stress:

1)Geer and Maisel (1972) – Physiological Measures

2)Holmes and Rahe (1967) – Self-report

3)Johansson et al., (1978) – Combined Approach

3.Techniques for managing stress:

1)Meichenbaum (1972) – Cognitive

2)Budzynski (1970) – Behavioural

3)Waxler-Morrison (1991) – Social

Dysfunctional Behaviour:

1.Diagnosis of dysfunctional behaviour:

1)DSM/ICD – Categorising

2)Rosenhan and Seligman (1989) – Definitions

3)Ford and Widiger (1989) – Biases in Diagnosis

2.Explanations of dysfunctional behaviour:

1)Gottesman and Shields (1972) – Biological

2)Watson and Raynor Little Albert (1920) – Behavioural

3)Beck (1979) – Cognitive – Maladaptive Thoughts

3.Treatments of dysfunctional behaviour:

1)Karp and Frank (1995) – Biological

2)McGrath – Behavioural

3)Beck (1979) – Cognitive Therapy


1.Characteristics of disorders:

1)An anxiety Disorder- Phobia 

2)A Psychotic Disorder – Schizophrenia

3)An Affective Disorder – depression

2.Explanations of one disorder (affective, anxiety or psychotic):

1)Liberman– Behavioural

2)Gottesman and Shields (1972) – Biological

3)Maher – Cognitive

3.Treatments of one disorder (affective, anxiety of psychotic):

1)Paul and Lentz (1977) – Behavioural

2)Sensky et al – Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

3)Kane – Biological



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Health and Clinical psychology
Healthy Living:

1. Theories of health belief:
1) Becker (1978) ­ Health Belief Model
2) Rotter (1966) ­ Locus of Control
3) Bandura (1977)­ Self-efficacy
2. Methods of health promotion and supporting evidence:
1) Cowpe (1989) ­ Media Campaign
2) Dannenberg (1993) ­ Legislation
3) Janis…

Page 2

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3. Treatments of one disorder (affective, anxiety of psychotic):
1) Paul and Lentz (1977) ­ Behavioural
2) Sensky et al ­ Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
3) Kane ­ Biological

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1. Theories of Health Belief:
This section looks at 3 lifestyle models that contribute to our understanding of health behaviour:
1) Health Belief Model
2) Locus of Control
3) Self-efficacy

1.1 Health Belief model (HBM)

A cognitive model which identifies which factors that indicate the possibility of an individual

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3. Mothers who reported that their child's asthma interfered with the mother's activities also
complied with the medication.
4. A negative correlation was found between the costs of medication and treatment and compliance.
This does not necessarily only refer to economic costs, but it can also refer to the costs…

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Reductionism ­ the study is highly reductionist and fails to consider wider factors such as mood or
the impact of others. It reduces the explanation for why people do/don't adopt healthy life styles
down to just two variables (internal/exter LOC). E.g. whether an individual adopts a healthy
lifestyle is probably…

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much they thought they would be able to complete tasks involving snakes) Fear of snakes also
2) Systematic desensitisation : a standard desensitisation programme was followed. Patients were
introduced to a series of events involving snakes and at each stage were taught relaxation. Ranged
from looking at pictures of…

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Largest reduction was during the campaign
If area received more than one television channel, the `overlap' areas showed less impact, probably due
to the reduced impact of seeing the campaign more than once.
Questionnaires showed an increase in the awareness of chip-pan fire advertising from 62% in
Yorkshire TV area…

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Participants were asked about use one year previously and on their most recent bike ride. Howard county
reported usage had increased from 11.4 to 37..5%, compared with 8.4 to 12.6% in Montgomery County and
6.7 to 11.1% in Baltimore County.
The younger the children, the more their bicycle usage…

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"The entire freshman class of a large Connecticut high school was divided into four groups on a random
- Janis and Feshbach (1953)
200 students in total, with 50 in each group.
Group one: High Fear Arousal
Group two: Moderate Fear Arousal
Group Three: Minimal Fear Arousal

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This section looks at:
Rational non-adherence :how weighed up the pros and cons of adherence many logically lead to
Physical measures of adherence
Reinforcement to improve adherence
3.1 Reasons for non-adherence
Rational Choice Theory suggests that people may not adhere to medical regime and it's a logical
decision not…


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