OCR A2 health and clinical psychology notes

Health and Clinical psychology

Healthy Living:

1.Theories of health belief:

1)Becker (1978) – Health Belief Model

2)Rotter (1966) – Locus of Control

3)Bandura (1977)– Self-efficacy

2. Methods of health promotion and supporting evidence:

1)Cowpe (1989) – Media Campaign

2)Dannenberg (1993) – Legislation

3)Janis and Feshbach (1953) – Fear Arousal

3.Features of adherence to medical regimes and supporting evidence:

1)Bulpitt and Fletcher (1988) – Reasons for non-adherence: (cognitive rational non-                adherence)

2)Lustman (2000) – Measures of non-adherence: physiological

3)Watt et al (2003)  – Improving – Behavioural methods (Funhaler)

Stress:

1.Causes of stress:

1)Johansson et al., (1978) – Work

2)Kanner (1981) – Hassles and Life Events

3)Geer and Maisel (1972) – Lack of Control

2.Methods of measuring stress:

1)Geer and Maisel (1972) – Physiological Measures

2)Holmes and Rahe (1967) – Self-report

3)Johansson et al., (1978) – Combined Approach

3.Techniques for managing stress:

1)Meichenbaum (1972) – Cognitive

2)Budzynski (1970) – Behavioural

3)Waxler-Morrison (1991) – Social

Dysfunctional Behaviour:

1.Diagnosis of dysfunctional behaviour:

1)DSM/ICD – Categorising

2)Rosenhan and Seligman (1989) – Definitions

3)Ford and Widiger (1989) – Biases in Diagnosis

2.Explanations of dysfunctional behaviour:

1)Gottesman and Shields (1972) – Biological

2)Watson and Raynor Little Albert (1920) – Behavioural

3)Beck (1979) – Cognitive – Maladaptive Thoughts

3.Treatments of dysfunctional behaviour:

1)Karp and Frank (1995) – Biological

2)McGrath – Behavioural

3)Beck (1979) – Cognitive Therapy

Disorders:

1.Characteristics of disorders:

1)An anxiety Disorder- Phobia 

2)A Psychotic Disorder – Schizophrenia

3)An Affective Disorder – depression

2.Explanations of one disorder (affective, anxiety or psychotic):

1)Liberman– Behavioural

2)Gottesman and Shields (1972) – Biological

3)Maher – Cognitive

3.Treatments of one disorder (affective, anxiety of psychotic):

1)Paul and Lentz (1977) – Behavioural

2)Sensky et al – Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

3)Kane – Biological

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Health and Clinical psychology
Healthy Living:
1. Theories of health belief:
1) Becker (1978) ­ Health Belief Model
2) Rotter (1966) ­ Locus of Control
3) Bandura (1977)­ Self-efficacy
2. Methods of health promotion and supporting evidence:
1) Cowpe (1989) ­ Media Campaign
2) Dannenberg (1993) ­ Legislation
3) Janis and Feshbach (1953) ­ Fear Arousal
3. Features of adherence to medical regimes and supporting evidence:
1) Bulpitt and Fletcher (1988) ­ Reasons for non-adherence: (cognitive rational non-
adherence )
2) Lustman (2000) ­ Measures of non-adherence: physiological
3) Watt et al (2003) ­ Improving ­ Behavioural methods (Funhaler)
Stress:
1. Causes of stress:
1) Johansson et al., (1978) ­ Work
2) Kanner (1981) ­ Hassles and Life Events
3) Geer and Maisel (1972) ­ Lack of Control
2. Methods of measuring stress:
1) Geer and Maisel (1972) ­ Physiological Measures
2) Holmes and Rahe (1967) ­ Self-report
3) Johansson et al., (1978) ­ Combined Approach
3. Techniques for managing stress:
1) Meichenbaum (1972) ­ Cognitive
2) Budzynski (1970) ­ Behavioural
3) Waxler-Morrison (1991) ­ Social
Dysfunctional Behaviour:
1. Diagnosis of dysfunctional behaviour:
1) DSM/ICD ­ Categorising
2) Rosenhan and Seligman (1989) ­ Definitions
3) Ford and Widiger (1989) ­ Biases in Diagnosis
2. Explanations of dysfunctional behaviour:
1) Gottesman and Shields (1972) ­ Biological
2) Watson and Raynor Little Albert (1920) ­ Behavioural
3) Beck (1979) ­ Cognitive ­ Maladaptive Thoughts
3. Treatments of dysfunctional behaviour:
1) Karp and Frank (1995) ­ Biological
2) McGrath ­ Behavioural
3) Beck (1979) ­ Cognitive Therapy
Disorders:
1. Characteristics of disorders:
1) An anxiety Disorder- Phobia
2) A Psychotic Disorder ­ Schizophrenia
3) An Affective Disorder ­ depression
2. Explanations of one disorder (affective, anxiety or psychotic):
1) Liberman­ Behavioural
2) Gottesman and Shields (1972) ­ Biological
3) Maher ­ Cognitive

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Treatments of one disorder (affective, anxiety of psychotic):
1) Paul and Lentz (1977) ­ Behavioural
2) Sensky et al ­ Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
3) Kane ­ Biological…read more

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Theories of Health Belief:
This section looks at 3 lifestyle models that contribute to our understanding of health behaviour:
1) Health Belief Model
2) Locus of Control
3) Self-efficacy
1.1 Health Belief model (HBM)
A cognitive model which identifies which factors that indicate the possibility of an individual
adopting a health behaviour.…read more

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Mothers who reported that their child's asthma interfered with the mother's activities also
complied with the medication.
4. A negative correlation was found between the costs of medication and treatment and compliance.
This does not necessarily only refer to economic costs, but it can also refer to the costs in day to
day life.
5.…read more

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Reductionism ­ the study is highly reductionist and fails to consider wider factors such as mood or
the impact of others. It reduces the explanation for why people do/don't adopt healthy life styles
down to just two variables (internal/exter LOC). E.g. whether an individual adopts a healthy
lifestyle is probably dependent on a wide number of variables, not just locus of control.…read more

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Fear of snakes also
measured.
2) Systematic desensitisation : a standard desensitisation programme was followed. Patients were
introduced to a series of events involving snakes and at each stage were taught relaxation. Ranged
from looking at pictures of snakes to handling live snakes.
3) Post-test assessments
was again measured on behaviours and belief of self-efficacy and coping.
Findings
Higher levels of post-test self-efficacy were found to correlate with higher levels of interaction with
snakes.…read more

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Largest reduction was during the campaign
If area received more than one television channel, the `overlap' areas showed less impact, probably due
to the reduced impact of seeing the campaign more than once.
Questionnaires showed an increase in the awareness of chip-pan fire advertising from 62% in
Yorkshire TV area before the campaign to 90% after the 1st
advert and stayed 96% after the
campaign.…read more

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Findings
Participants were asked about use one year previously and on their most recent bike ride. Howard county
reported usage had increased from 11.4 to 37..5%, compared with 8.4 to 12.6% in Montgomery County and
6.7 to 11.1% in Baltimore County.
The younger the children, the more their bicycle usage increased.
Conclusion
Passing legislation has more of an effect than educational campaigns alone.…read more

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Participants
"The entire freshman class of a large Connecticut high school was divided into four groups on a random
basis"
- Janis and Feshbach (1953)
200 students in total, with 50 in each group.
Group one: High Fear Arousal
Group two: Moderate Fear Arousal
Group Three: Minimal Fear Arousal
Group Four: Control
Procedure
Group One were shown:
Pictures and descriptions of diseased mouths, including explanations about the pain of tooth decay and gum
disease and awful consequences like cancer and blindness.…read more

Page 10

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This section looks at:
Rational non-adherence :how weighed up the pros and cons of adherence many logically lead to
non-adherence.
Physical measures of adherence
Reinforcement to improve adherence
3.1 Reasons for non-adherence
Rational Choice Theory suggests that people may not adhere to medical regime and it's a logical
decision not to adherence to medical advice.…read more

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