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OUTLINE THE CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder characterized by severe disruptions in psychological
functioning and a loss of contact with reality. There are two main classification systems in current use
which are ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. It is important to have a classification system because…

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SCHNEIDER in an attempt to make decision more reliable he identified a group of symptoms which
are specific for schizophrenia and not other disorders. He called this `first-rank symptoms'. ICD makes
more of an emphasis on the first-rank symptoms.

Using first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia when diagnosing is a way of…

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schizophrenia is also due to genetics, then given that identical twins have the exact same genes, the
concordance rate should be 100%. But since it is not it suggest that there are other factors too.

A more effective way of separating genetic and environmental factors is to look at adopted…

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Drugs tend to be effective at alleviating positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but not negative
symptoms, suggesting that all of the symptoms of schizophrenia may not be directly related to
dopamine.

Since late 1920s, it's been noticed that an overwhelming high proportion of people diagnosed with
schizophrenia were brown in winter…

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There is a lot of research supporting drug therapies. For example JULIEN found that Clozapine has
been an effective treatment of schizophrenia. DELIME found that serotonin moderating drugs such as
Clozapine can alleviate negative symptoms.

RZEWUSKA (2002) found that symptoms often retuned if patients stop taking the drugs and
patients…

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An APA (American Psychiatric Association) review in 2001 listed 19 studies that had compared ECT
with `simulated ECT' (patients are given general anaesthesia but no ECT.) It concluded that ECT
produced results that were no different from or worse than antipsychotic medication. However, an
Indian study by SARITA ET AL,…

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Hemsley found tentative research in animals has found a neurological relationship between problems
in the hippocampus and schema activation failure. Genetic support has been found where Park found
working memory deficits in people with schizophrenia and in their first-degree non-schizophrenia
relatives.

PET scans show under-activity in the frontal lobe of…

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The social explanation can be criticised for putting too much emphasis on social factors and ignoring
biological factors, when there is strong evidence that the latter do have a significant effect. And
therefore even an interaction of both hypotheses will be a reductionist



Disturbed communications with family might be a…

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In an Israeli study, psychologists looked at children with a schizophrenic parent. They found that those
children who had good parenting did not develop schizophrenia. However those who had poor
parenting were more likely to develop schizophrenia.



OUTLINE PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA

Patients suffering from schizophrenia despite taking their medication…

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It seems that not everyone will benefit from cognitive behavioural therapy. For example in a study of
142 schizophrenia patients, it was found that many patients were not deemed suitable for cognitive
behavioural therapy because psychiatrists believed they would not fully engaged with the therapy.

There are many aspects of…

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