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One biological influence on gender is the role of genes in gender development. Everybody has 23
pairs of chromosomes in their body which contain genes. Each of these chromosomes carries
hundreds of genes containing instructions about physical and behavioural characteristics,…

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brain more masculine. Although some suggest that the testosterone may affect the levels of other
hormones which many affect maternal personality. Therefore the relationship may not be causal.

REINER suggested that our biology plays a vital role in determining out gender development. He
studied 16 genetic males born with almost…

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Another problem is that much of the research in this area is done to people with intersex conditions.
The results of these studies should therefore only be applied to the general population with caution
as they may only be applicable to people with intersex conditions. Research into such personal and…

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BARON-COHEN found that only 17% of men had a female empathising brain and the same
percentage of women had a male systematising brain. This could show individual differences, in
addition this research shows alpha bias, this theory sees there to be real and enduring differences
between male and females.


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attitudes. To be a comprehensive theory, it would have to account for the influence of such factors
on our behaviour.

The theory is also extremely deterministic. It states that gender roles are biologically inevitable and
disregards the role of free will in breaking stereotypical roles. For example, it cannot explain…

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these lead to sex role allocations which in turn create psychological sex differences. This means that
psychological sex differences are seen as the consequences of the different roles to which men and
women are assigned. Social role theory argues that physical differences between men and women
allow them to perform…

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prenatally because of drugs taken by their mothers. Such evidence may not be relevant to
understanding normal gender development.

The more specific assertion of MONEY ET AL (1972) that in the first two-and-a-half to three years a
child's sense of itself is flexible enough to allow its sexual label to…

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Gender Dysphoria is a condition in which people are uncomfortable with the gender to which they
are assigned. In the extreme, this can lead to transsexualism, a desire to change gender. Gender
dysphoria is more common in boys, but occurs across both sexes.…

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ZUCKER ET AL studied 115 boys with concerns about their gender identity and their mothers. Of the
boys who were eventually diagnosed with GID, 64% were also diagnosed with separation anxiety
disorder, compared to only 38% of the boys who symptoms were subclinical. This points to some
kind of disordered…

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The first stage is known as "gender labelling" or "basic gender identity". This occurs between 1.5 and
3 years, and refers to a child's recognition of being male or female. Kohlberg understood that this
recognition allows us to understand and categorise the world. This knowledge is fragile, with "man",


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