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INITIATION: Addiction occurs when a person becomes reliant upon something to function normally.
Biological explanations of addiction focus on neurotransmitter substances in the brain, and on genetic
differences between people with addictions and people without addiction. According to a biological
model, a person would be most…

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However, COMINGS ET AL -also found that the A1 gene variant occurs in patients with disorders
other than addictions such as autism and Tourettes's, indicating that the gene variant may not be
specifically related to addiction.

VOLKOW ET AL -suggested that just because a person has fewer dopamine receptors and…

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was developed after nicotine was identified as the addictive substance in cigarettes. This
shows that biochemistry of the brain has a big role in the development of addiction.
CORRELATIONAL: The research put forward to support the biological model is based mainly on
correlational studies; correlations can only show relationships between…

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VINK- also reported that nicotine dependence was influenced primarily by genetic factors. Research
also suggest that mothers who smoke heavily while pregnant were more likely to have children
who, should they start smoking, were more likely to become addicted.

LERMAN ET AL (1999) showed that those carrying a particular gene…

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However, by regarding smoking addiction as a biological problem, this create the possibility
that it may be treated by various pharmacological methods.
REDUCTIONIST: Biological explanations of addictions are essentially reductionists as they
reduce a complex phenomenon down to a relatively simple level of explanations such as an
imbalance of brain…

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MAINTENANCE: WRAY ET AL (1981) reported that gamblers who are prevented from gambling
often report changes that resemble withdrawal symptoms.

ORFORD ET AL (1996) compared alcoholics and problem gamblers. The two groups reported similar
levels of perceived strength of addictions, even though problem gamblers reported less intense
withdrawal and less…

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INITIATION: Cognitive explanations for addictive behaviour focus on how faulty judgements can
cause and maintain addiction. According to Beck, the cognition model of addiction indicates that
addicts find themselves in a vicious circle: a low mood is relieved by engaging in the addictive
behaviour, which leads to low mood.


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SCIENTIFIC METHODS: Cognitive psychologists' emphasis on scientific methods is a strength
of their approach, although some would question the value of their experimental research,
which often makes use of very contrived and unrealistic tasks and measures which may not
adequately reflect real-world psychological and behavioural processes.
THERAPIES: On a practical…

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that expectancies are important here. The smoker may expect the withdrawal experience to be
extremely unpleasant, and this expectancy informs their self-efficacy. It may well be that some
people find that it is relatively easy to stop smoking, whereas others find it extremely difficult.

RELAPSE: Coping, expectancy and self-efficacy can…

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amount of control they have over gambling outcomes. Griffiths observed both regular and occasional
gamblers and found that regular gamblers were more likely to express irrational thoughts such as
believing that they has skill or control over the gambling machine.

RELAPSE: In simple terms, the withdrawal effects from gambling may…


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