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Psychology Revision ­ Memory

Definitions within Memory
Memory
The mental process used to encode, store and retrieve information.
Encoding
Encoding involves changing the information presented into a different form. Since words or other items
in the short term store are rehearsed or repeated, we might assume that they are encoded…

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The research lacks mundane realism as the digitspan task is not representative of everyday memory
demands ­ the artificiality of the task may have made the results biased. Letters and numbers are not
very meaningful, so may not be remembered as well as meaningful information.
This means that the capacity…

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Long term Memory ­ A relatively permanent store, which has unlimited capacity and duration. Different
kinds of long term memory have been identified episodic (memory for personal events), semantic
(memory for facts and information) and procedural (memory for actions and skills).
Key Study: BAHRICK ET AL ­ DURATION IN LONG…

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+ There are huge differences in the duration of information in the short term and long term memory.
Unrehearsed information in the shortterm memory had vanished after about 20 seconds (Peterson &
Peterson). In contrast some information in the longterm memory is still there 48 years after learning
(Bahrick et…

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supporting interference, as the awake group were more likely to get new information
than the asleep group.
The time of day may have been a confounding variable, the sleeping group learned before going to
bed and the awake group learned during the day.
It is artificial and lacks mundane realism…

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The questions asked can be termed `leading' questions because they affected the P's memory of the
event.
The answer to a leading question is in the question ­ the question contains information about what the
answer should be.
Therefore, language can have a distorting affect on Eyewitness testimony, which can…

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