Memory Revision

Everything to know for memory

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  • Created on: 27-11-10 17:20
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Psychology Revision Notes
Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory
Capacity ­ 7 +/ 2
Millar ­ digit span experiment ­ ppt's had to recall a set of numbers immediately after
looking at them, each time the set of numbers added a number. (e.g. 3245, 98768, 275843)
Duration ­ 18 ­ 96 seconds
Peterson and peterson ­ WRT 303 ­ ppt's had to count backwards in 3's or 4's from 303.
90% of letters were remembered when there were only 3 second intervals and 2% when 18 second
Encoded ­ Acoustically
Baddeley 1966 ­ gave ppt's lists of words which were acoustically or dissimilar. He found
that remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not LTM, whereas semantically similar words had
little problem for short term recall but led to confused LTM.
Capacity ­ Potentially unlimited
Duration ­ 2hours to 100 years
Bahrik asked ppt's to put names to the faces in their high school books. 48 years on 70%
were accurate.
Encoded ­ Semantically
Baddeley 1966 ­ Gave ppt's a list of words semantically similar or dissimilar, he found that
semantically similar words had little problem for short term recall but led to confused LTM.
Other Evidence
STM Capacity ­ Jacob ­ asked ppt's to read out a line of data at a time and then the ppt's had to recall
the information immediately in the same order. The average span for digits was 9.3 and 7.3 for letters, this
is because there are 9 digits and 26 letters.
Simon ­ Letters Vs Numbers, the size of the chunk matters. People had shorter memory span for larger
chunks, such as 8 worded phrases. Smaller chunks are easier to remember.
Cowan ­ 4 is the new magic number ­ STM is about 4 chunks. STM isn't as extensive as was first
STM and LTM Encoding ­ Brandimote et al. Gave a visual task and prevented from doing any verbal
rehearsal in the retention interval (la la la) before performing a visual recall task. Normally we translate
visual images into verbal codes in STM but the ppt's used visual encoding in STM.
Wickens et all ­ Shown that encoding in LTM is not exclusively semantic.
Frost ­ showed that LTM recall was related to visual as well as semantic.
Nelson and Rothbart ­ Found evidence of acoustic encoding.

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This memory store was first done by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffin in 1968.
Environment stimuli is something that we can concentrate on, visually, acoustically (Smell, picture,Sound)
Sensory memory is Eyes,nose,taste,touch
Attention is focusing on one sensory store
Maintenance rehearsal is repeating
Decay is forgetting
Replacement is a memory pushing another memory out
Elaborative rehearsal rehearsed in a meaningful way.
Retrieval is getting information from LTM
Interference is when two memories are blended together and neither of the individual memories are
accurate.…read more

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Clive Wearing ­ Had a viral infection which attacked the brain, he could no longer form new LTM's but
could remember parts of his LTM from before the viral infection. His STM is damaged.
He Cannot transfer memories from STM to LTM.
Evidence Against MSM :
The Stores are not unitary ­ Case Study ­ KF was in a motorbike accident and his LTM is fine and his
STM is very short.…read more

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The Working Memory Model
This Working memory model was made by Baddeley and Hitch 1974.
The Central Executive is the problem solver and decision maker
The phonological loop has two components, the phonological store which holds speech or sound this is the
inner ear. And the articulatory loop which is a process for rehearsing information and keeping it in the loop,
this is the inner voice.…read more

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But the word length effect disappears if a person is given an articulatory suppression task (saying the the
the) whilst reading the words. This repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and means you cant
rehearse the shorter words more quickly then the longer ones. This is evidence of the articulatory process.
Baddeley 1975 ­ Evidence for the visuospatial sketchpad ­ ppt's had to describe the angles of a letter
whilst tracking a line with a pen, the ppt's found it very difficult.…read more

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The WMM model comes for case studies of people who suffer from serious brain damage.
Amnesia means that the researcher cannot contrast between the before and after of the incident, so it is
unclear whether the changes in behaviour were caused by the damage. Also brain injurys are traumatic
which may in itself cause changes to behaviour.…read more


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