Psychological explanations of phobias

this includes psychodynamic, behavioral and cognitive explanations

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PSYCHOLOGICAL
EXPLANATION
FOR PHOBIAS
PSYCHODYNAMIC (AO1) : EVALUATION FOR PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH:
Anxiety experienced about an object/situation is a displacement of STRENGTHS:
internal source of underlying anxiety Bowlby found that agoraphobics often had early experiences of family
Unconscious sexual fears operate through defence mechanisms such conflicts, this leads the child to feel anxious when separated from
as displacement and repression parents, this feeling becomes repressed and they later emerge as
Fear is repressed into the unconscious then displaced onto agoraphobics
something else Whiting found that phobias were more common in cultures that had a
It is related to the three personalities - id, ego, superego strict form of parenting, stricter and more structured form of parenting
Little Hans - phobia of horses, Freud believed that the phobia is might lead a child to have repressed desires.
related to his unconscious fear of his father associated with the Freud's theory is falsifiable because you can't disprove it
oedipal complex - (AO3) case study - rich in detail (qualitative data),
can't generalise to all WEAKNESSES :
Freud only provided one piece of evidence, little Hans, can be
explained in terms of CC
Lack of objectivity - Freud interpreted the results according to his
explanation of phobias
IDA:
Reductionist
Deterministic
Nature
BEHAVIOURAL EXPLANATION (AO1) : EVALUATION FOR BAHAVIOURAL APPROACH:
5 steps: STRENGTHS:

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Something bad happens association between anxiety and It is supported with the little Albert study
situation is established generalise to all situation avoid the
situation avoidance is established by doing something else
WEAKNESSES :
Little Albert - Every time a rat went across.…read more

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EXAMPLE: Standing in a crowded lift may be maintained later by WEAKNESSES
thoughts like `I might suffocate if I was trapped in a lift' (Danger beliefs) Doesn't verify the underlining cause
this turns into a fear of lifts/ claustrophobia Doesn't establish whether irrational thoughts are the cause of phobias
Beck - danger beliefs are activated when the person is in close or a symptom of the disorder.…read more

Comments

MrsMacLean

colourful revision notes. The titles are really clear and straight to the point 

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