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Characteristics- anxiety disorder
Phobia
- a phobia is an anxiety disorder- it's an
extreme/irrational fear of an object, place, animal or
situation.
- two types of phobia: simple- fear of something
specific, e.g. dogs, heights, dentists; and complex-
fear or anxiety about a circumstance or situation, e.
g. social phobia
- characteristics of phobias: avoiding the
object/situation, having irrational thoughts,
something which disrupts the persons everyday life.…read more

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Characteristics- psychotic disorder
Schizophrenia
- schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder
- there are positive and negative symptoms-
positive: symptoms which werent there before they
developed schizophrenia, e.g. hallucinations,
delusions; negative: lack of emotional response,
reduction in their thoughts, e.g. lack of interest and
inability to concentrate
- characteristics of schizophrenia include:
disorganised thoughts, dilusions, paranoia,
hallucinations…read more

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Characteristics- affective disorder
Depression
- depression is an affective disorder
- symptoms can be physical or psychological.
Physical symptoms: being restless/agitiated,
using drugs or tobacco, self harm. Psychological
symptoms: feeling low spirited, feeling helpless,
reduced concentration, pessimism
- symptoms are specific to the individual, they
don't necessarily experience all the symptoms…read more

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Explanations of one disorder (phobias)
-behavioural
Watson & Raynor
- behaviourists believe all behaviour is learnt from
our environment; phobias can be explained by
people teaching themselves to be afraid by
associating an object/animal with something
unpleasant
- Watson & Raynor presented Little Albert with a
white rat, and repeatedly struck an iron bar behind
him when he saw the rat, eventually making him
afraid of it without the noise…read more

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Explanations of one disorder (phobias)
-behavioural
Evaluation of behavioural explanations
Reductionist- only looks at learning to be the
reason for phobias
useful- shows how we can learn phobias- so
may be able to help teach how to unlearn them…read more

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