PSYA3 Cognition & Development Notes

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Deborah
  • Created on: 16-06-13 10:46
Preview of PSYA3 Cognition & Development Notes

First 507 words of the document:

The idea that we are born with basic skills to allow for cognitive development that grow as we
become older.
He believed that the child underwent two processes:
o Accommodation- When a schema is altered in order to fit in new information i.e. learning
that birds don't have to fly to be birds. At this point, the child is in disequilibrium.
o Assimilation- When new information is able to be fitted into an existing schema. At this
point, the child is in equilibrium.
Disequilibrium is an uncomfortable mental state which is made better by being in equilibrium.
Stages of Cognitive Development:
o Sensorimotor- Birth-10 months. Lack of an understanding of object permanence
(things out of sight are not believed to exist). Develop the ability to form schemas based
on the sensation an action produces i.e. putting object in mouth forms a Mental
o Pre-Operational- 18 months- 6 years. Begin to operationalise (think through actions
before carrying them out). Able to communicate but only about their own opinions and are
Egocentric (can only see things from their own perspective). They also don't understand
conservation, when things are arranged differently, the quantity, volume and number
remain the same (*** is the same as * * *). Can also not focus on more than one task at
once, Centration. Two stages: Pre-conceptual phase and Intuitive phase.
o Concrete Operational- 6 years- 12 years. Begin to perform mental operations and
reason logically and use inductive logic where they apply their knowledge to different
situations. Become decentred where they are able to focus on more than one task at a
time. Understand that an action can be reversed. Unable to use transitive inference as
they cannot make logical deductions i.e. A before B, B before C, so A is first.
o Formal Operational- 12 years onwards. Can undertake formal operations where they
do not have to perform an action to imagine the consequences. Used to formulate
Bower- Found that object permanence occurred earlier than Piaget had originally thought as
children were displaying it as early as 3.5 months.
Meltzoff & Moore- Mental representations occurred earlier than Piaget thought. Children 6 weeks
old were able to imitate an expression, showing their ability to form a mental representation of the
Children aged 3 were able to hide a doll away from toy policemen which requires egocentrism,
however Piaget thought that this developed a lot later.
Change of Piaget's counter study showed children below the age of 6 showing conservation.
Not all reach the formal operational stage (I in 3) and this was even lower for non-westernised
cultures-> cultural bias.
IDASà Nature/ Nurture, Limited, Reductionist, Determinism, Cultural Bias
Believed that social activity is what children need to develop cognition.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Stages of Cognitive Development- Stages of concept formation
o Vague Syncretic- No organised grouping of items and no understanding of categories.
Trial and error is used to solve problems.
o Complex- Begin to understand grouping and strategies become less random. Correct
category is usually not selected though i.e. animal category used for duck and water
because of the close association of the two things.
o Potential Concept- Grouping and systematic approaches are used but only on one
concept at a time i.e.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Evidence that traditional teaching methods i.e. lecturing, are better than Piaget's method.
The approach is best used on mathematical and logical subjects and not on subjects like history or
The approach requires you to know what schemas a child possesses in order to determine which
stage they are in and the type of learning the require but this is not really possible.
It has been used to alter the way things are taught in schools.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Stage 6- Universal Ethical Principles-> Conscience dictates whether to break the
law or not.
Colby et al- 27 yearlong study on male PPs. Tested 6 times. All went through the same moral
development stages.
UNIVERSAL- Meta analysis. People move through same stages in same order in different
-> non westernised cultures scored differently on the scale, especially those from obedient
families- Culturally Biased
Gender Bias- only focuses on male moral development. Women regard morality as ethics and care.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

False belief tasks indicate this. Wimmer & Perner- Indicating which cupboard, green or blue, a
child would look in to find the sweets he had originally put in the blue cupboard but after someone
had moved them to the green.
-> 2-3 Year olds are more likely to say the box where the sweets actually ARE because
they don't understand that the child didn't see and so doesn't know they have moved.
Most 4 year olds tend to get this right.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Cultural norm may be that they choose to ignore the opinions of others or appear to but doesn't
mean that they can't take on that view.
Social cognition may be damaged when the brain is damaged:
->Anosognosia- Person is unaware of their mental impairment.
o Frontal lobe damage can cause change in personality.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »