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Study: Stefansson ­ Initiation of smoking ­ biological explanation ­ chromosome 15q24

Findings: Kari Stefansson argues that the variant 15q24 causes more addiction and more smoking.
The variant is in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24.
Non-smokers are more likely to carry a protective gene called CYP2A6.…

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Findings: Weiss et al found that neutral stimuli that signal the impending delivery of a reward can
themselves trigger dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore cognitive factors are also
involved, it is not a purely physiological phenomenon.

Study: Cavedini et al 2002 ­ structural abnormalities of addicts - initiation…

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Findings: Increased heart rated and cortisol in black jack players when playing.

Study: Sobol et al 1999 ­ SLC6A3 ­ why some can give up an addiction ­ biological - relapse

Findings: Sobol et al 1999 found that those who possess the SLC6A3 gene find it easier to give up…

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people who might put pressure on them to smoke. People tend to choose friends with similar
attitudes to themselves. Thus negative reinforcement to avoid bullying is not such a plausible

Study: Robins 1975 ­ support of the classical conditioning explanation of initiation of addictions

Findings: He found that many…

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pigeons acted just like gamblers and continued to prefer to peck the gambling disc even though it
was not giving them very little food. They spent so long doing this and expended so much energy
pecking the gambling disc that they lost weight and were in danger of starving to…

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Findings: Sargent and Hanewinkel 2009 looked at the effects of film media on smoking initiation.
They surveyed 4,384 11-15 year olds before and a year after seeing smoking in the movies. Being
exposed to movie smoking was a strong predictor of whether they had started smoking at the one

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Findings: Walker et al 2006 also investigated the Theory of Planned Behaviour in relation to playing
the lottery, this time in Canada. Telephone interviews in Ps first language were conducted with
English, Cantonese and Mandarin Canadians. Support was found for the attitudes and norms part of
the theory but self-efficacy…

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Study: Gottdiener ­ failures of ego control

Findings: Impaired ego control theory would say addicts lack the ability to control impulses to
self-medicate through drugs and alcohol. Gottdiener et al found that Ps with substance abuse
disorders showed significant failures of ego control compared with a control group of non-alcoholics.…

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Study: Dr. Mary Creek ­ stress and addiction

Findings: Drug-addicted patients who are trying to remain off drugs can often resist the cravings
brought on by seeing reminds of their former drug life, NIDA-funded research Mary Creek of New
York City has noted. "For 6 months or so, they can…




Also some good psya4 addiction essays here.

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