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Study: Stefansson ­ Initiation of smoking ­ biological explanation ­ chromosome 15q24
Findings: Kari Stefansson argues that the variant 15q24 causes more addiction and more smoking.
The variant is in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24.
Non-smokers are more likely to carry a protective gene called CYP2A6. Possession of this gene
causes them to feel more nauseous and dizzy after smoking than those without the gene.…read more

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Findings: Weiss et al found that neutral stimuli that signal the impending delivery of a reward can
themselves trigger dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore cognitive factors are also
involved, it is not a purely physiological phenomenon.
Study: Cavedini et al 2002 ­ structural abnormalities of addicts - initiation
Findings: Found a link between frontal lobe dysfunction and problem gambling.…read more

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Findings: Increased heart rated and cortisol in black jack players when playing.
Study: Sobol et al 1999 ­ SLC6A3 ­ why some can give up an addiction ­ biological - relapse
Findings: Sobol et al 1999 found that those who possess the SLC6A3 gene find it easier to give up an
Study: Grant et al., 1998 ­ are dopamine sensitivity and addiction inevitably linked?
Findings: An experiment with monkeys showed that the dopamine system can be influenced by social
interactions.…read more

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People tend to choose friends with similar
attitudes to themselves. Thus negative reinforcement to avoid bullying is not such a plausible
Study: Robins 1975 ­ support of the classical conditioning explanation of initiation of addictions
Findings: He found that many Vietnam veterans had become addicted to heroin whilst in Vietnam.
However, when they returned home and were obviously experiencing different environmental
stimuli, fewer of them relapsed than civilians who returned to the same environment in which they
acquired their addiction.…read more

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They spent so long doing this and expended so much energy
pecking the gambling disc that they lost weight and were in danger of starving to death. Christopher
had to take the gambling disc away and the pigeons returned to pecking the normal disc. When the
gambling disc was reinstated the pigeons went straight back to it and started to lose weight all over
Conclusions: This may explain why some people become addicted to gambling and others do not.…read more

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Findings: Sargent and Hanewinkel 2009 looked at the effects of film media on smoking initiation.
They surveyed 4,384 11-15 year olds before and a year after seeing smoking in the movies. Being
exposed to movie smoking was a strong predictor of whether they had started smoking at the one
year follow-up.
Study: Griffiths 1994 ­ Demonstrated various cognitive biases eg. gambler's fallacy, sunk-cost bias,
cognitive myopia.…read more

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Findings: Walker et al 2006 also investigated the Theory of Planned Behaviour in relation to playing
the lottery, this time in Canada. Telephone interviews in Ps first language were conducted with
English, Cantonese and Mandarin Canadians. Support was found for the attitudes and norms part of
the theory but self-efficacy did not influence behaviour except for Chinese Canadian females.…read more

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Study: Gottdiener ­ failures of ego control
Findings: Impaired ego control theory would say addicts lack the ability to control impulses to
self-medicate through drugs and alcohol. Gottdiener et al found that Ps with substance abuse
disorders showed significant failures of ego control compared with a control group of non-alcoholics.
They also suffer from cognitive myopia.
Study: Beck ­ dysfunctional beliefs lead to relapse in smoking and gambling
Findings: Dysfunctional beliefs: Beck: People may relapse because of making negative
self-statements.…read more

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Study: Dr. Mary Creek ­ stress and addiction
Findings: Drug-addicted patients who are trying to remain off drugs can often resist the cravings
brought on by seeing reminds of their former drug life, NIDA-funded research Mary Creek of New
York City has noted. "For 6 months or so, they can walk past the street corner where they used to
buy drugs and not succumb to their urges. But then all of a sudden they relapse," she says.…read more



Also some good psya4 addiction essays here.

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