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Study: Klosterkotter et al. (1994)

Description: Assessed 489 admissions to a psychiatric unit in Aachen, Germany, to determine
whether positive or negative symptoms were more suited for the determination of a diagnosis of

Findings: They found that positive symptoms were more useful for diagnosis than were negative


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Study: Cultural differences in Diagnosis ­ Copeland et al. 1971

Findings: The reliability of diagnosis in schizophrenia is further challenged by the finding that there is
massive variation between countries. Copeland et al. 1971, gave a description of a patient to 134 US
and 194 British psychiatrists. 69% per cent…

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Study: Tienari et al. 2000 ­ Adoption studies into the biological explanations of schizophrenia

Findings: Of the 164 adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, 11
(6.7%) also received a diagnosis of schizophrenia, compared to just four (2%) of the 197 control
adoptees (born to non-schizophrenic mothers). The…

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Study: Bateson et al. (1956) ­ Double-bind theory ­ contradictory messages from parents ­ social
cultural factors in schizophrenia

Findings: Bateson et al. suggest that children who frequently receive contradictory messages from
their parents are more likely to develop schizophrenia. Ideas echoed by R.D. Laing, who argued that
what we…

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Study: Brown and Birley (1968) stressful life events in connection to schizophrenia

Findings: Brown and Birley reported that life events play an important role in precipitating episodes
of schizophrenia. They found that about 50% of people experience a stressful life event in the three
weeks prior to a schizophrenic episode,…

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Study: Berger 1965 ­ double-bind theory and family relationships

Findings: Berger found that schizophrenics reported a higher recall of double-bind statements by
their mothers than non-schizophrenics. However, this evidence may not be reliable, as patients'
recall may be affected by their schizophrenia.

Study: Hall & Levin (1980) ­ styles of…

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They included a range of studies that compared ECT with a placebo condition, with `simulated', or
`sham' ECT and with antipsychotic medication. They found that when ECT was compared with placebo
or simulated ECT, more people improved in the real ECT condition. However, there was no indication
that this advantage…

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Study: Vaughn and Leff 1976, other factors are important in the effectiveness of drugs

Findings: One of the studies in the Davis et al. review found that antipsychotic medication did make a
significant difference, but only for those living with hostility and criticism in their home environment.
In such conditions,…

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30% of people after nine months of treatment with conventional antipsychotics, but just 5% for
those treated with atypical antipsychotics.

Study: American Psychiatric Association review 2001 - Effectiveness of ECT

Findings: An American Psychiatric Association review in 2001 listed 19 studies that had compared ECT
with `simulated ECT'. It concluded…


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