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Study: Klosterkotter et al. (1994)
Description: Assessed 489 admissions to a psychiatric unit in Aachen, Germany, to determine
whether positive or negative symptoms were more suited for the determination of a diagnosis of
Findings: They found that positive symptoms were more useful for diagnosis than were negative
Study: Whaley 2001
Recent studies have found that inter-rater reliability correlations in the diagnosis of schizophrenia are
as low as 0.11.…read more

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Study: Cultural differences in Diagnosis ­ Copeland et al. 1971
Findings: The reliability of diagnosis in schizophrenia is further challenged by the finding that there is
massive variation between countries. Copeland et al. 1971, gave a description of a patient to 134 US
and 194 British psychiatrists. 69% per cent of the US psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia, but only
2% of the Britush psychiatrists gave the same diagnosis.…read more

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Study: Tienari et al. 2000 ­ Adoption studies into the biological explanations of schizophrenia
Findings: Of the 164 adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, 11
(6.7%) also received a diagnosis of schizophrenia, compared to just four (2%) of the 197 control
adoptees (born to non-schizophrenic mothers). The investigators concluded that these findings
showed that the genetic liability to schizophrenia had been `decisively confirmed'.…read more

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Study: Bateson et al. (1956) ­ Double-bind theory ­ contradictory messages from parents ­ social
cultural factors in schizophrenia
Findings: Bateson et al. suggest that children who frequently receive contradictory messages from
their parents are more likely to develop schizophrenia. Ideas echoed by R.D. Laing, who argued that
what we call schizophrenia is actually a reasonable response to the insane world.
Study: Linszen et al.…read more

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Study: Brown and Birley (1968) stressful life events in connection to schizophrenia
Findings: Brown and Birley reported that life events play an important role in precipitating episodes
of schizophrenia. They found that about 50% of people experience a stressful life event in the three
weeks prior to a schizophrenic episode, while only 12% reported one in the nine weeks prior to that.…read more

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Study: Berger 1965 ­ double-bind theory and family relationships
Findings: Berger found that schizophrenics reported a higher recall of double-bind statements by
their mothers than non-schizophrenics. However, this evidence may not be reliable, as patients'
recall may be affected by their schizophrenia.…read more

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They included a range of studies that compared ECT with a placebo condition, with `simulated', or
`sham' ECT and with antipsychotic medication. They found that when ECT was compared with placebo
or simulated ECT, more people improved in the real ECT condition. However, there was no indication
that this advantage was maintained over the medium or long-term. When ECT was compared with
antipsychotic medication treatment, results favoured the medication groups.…read more

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Study: Vaughn and Leff 1976, other factors are important in the effectiveness of drugs
Findings: One of the studies in the Davis et al. review found that antipsychotic medication did make a
significant difference, but only for those living with hostility and criticism in their home environment.
In such conditions, the relapse rate for those on medication was 53%, but for those in the placebo
condition the relapse rate was 92%.…read more

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Study: American Psychiatric Association review 2001 - Effectiveness of ECT
Findings: An American Psychiatric Association review in 2001 listed 19 studies that had compared ECT
with `simulated ECT'. It concluded that ECT produced results that were no different from or worse
than antipsychotic medication. However, an Indian study (Sarita et al., 1998) found no difference in
symptom reduction between 36 schizophrenia patients given either ECT or simulated ECT.…read more


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