PSYA3 AQA Relationships- Different Cultures

Revision cards providing the full content on different cultures in relationships in a simple way. 

1) Arranged Marriages-Relationships-Psychology

Outline the stages of an arranged marriage.

Give the characteristics of an arranged marriage.

What did Batabyal suggest?

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1) Answers


1) Choosing a range of possible candidates by well wishers. Chosen on the basis of family and economics. 

2) Presented to the person wishing to marry. (The agent)

3)The agent has a lot of choice and can refuse.  

4) Well wishers then seek agents of a higher quality. 

Arranged marriages: Obligatory, permanent,  collectivist (seen as an alliance between 2 families)

 Batabyal- Decisions best made by well wishers as young people are unlikely to make the right choice when choosing a life time partner as they are likely to choose on the basis of attraction. 

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2) Arranged Marriages-Collectivist Cultures- Relat

Outline studies into the success of an arranged marriage in collectivist cultures?

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2) Answers


China- women more satisfied in love marriage.

Gupta & Singh- asked 100 degree educated Indians (50 from each marriage type) to rate the liking and love for each other after 1, 5, 10 years of marriage.

Arranged: Love and liking low at first, but then increased with time.

Love: Love and liking decreased after time.

Umodri et al- Compared preferances in Indian students from professional and non professional backgrounds. 

Findings: Both happy with an arranged marriage with the consent from both parties. Both also happy with a love marriage with parent's approval. 


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3) Arranged Marriages in Individualistic Cultures?

What is meant by acculturation and acculturative stress?

Outline a study into arranged marriages in 2nd and 3rd generation migrants.

Outline the choices faced by 2nd and 3rd generation migrants in terms culture. 


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3) Answers

Opinions of arranged marriages in Western cultures differs to that of collectivist cultures. So migrants from collectivist cultures to Westernised cultures face a series of changes in terms of views on marriage.

  • People migrating are rapidly exposed to the views of other cultures. 
  • Acculturation- the process of internalising the views of other cultures. 
  • Acculturative Stress- Differences in values between home and dominant culture. 

Research into marital preferences in 2nd and 3rd generation immigrants:

Study on Pakistani Muslim Women raised in Canada.

  • Participants- 16-30 single, were interviewed.
  • Most favoured Western marriage practices (greater level of choice) 
  • Fathers resistant to change.
  • Demonstrates the importance of studying arranged marriages in Westernised cultures.  
  • Demonstrates the relationship choices faced by 2nd and 3rd generation migrants:


1) Integration: Keeps home culture values, relates to dominant culture.

2) Assimilation: Give up home culture, takes on views of dominant culture.

3) Separation: Keeps home culture, does not take on views of dominant culture.

4) Marginalisation: Gives up home culture, fails to take on views of dominant culture. 

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4) The Dowry System

What is meant by the term 'dowry'?

Outline a research study into dowry.

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4) Answers

In some parts of the world, relationships take place within the context of negotiation and economic transition.

Dowry: (money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage)


Nearly 2/3 of 4,000 women disapprove of the dowry system. 

Dowry still widespread in Bihar, India despite modernisation.

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