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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Endogenous pacemakers ­ internal biological body clocks

Exogenous zietgebers ­ external cues from environment

Circadian Rhythms - 24 hours

Sleep-wake cycle:

Obvious driving force behind this is daylight and awareness of the time through clock
Investigate what happens when a person is free…

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




These studies follow the biological approach in understanding behaviour
Human behaviour the is result of hormones and brain activities
We are more complex than that and can override biological determinism through choices
BUT study of blind man with circadian rhythm of 24.9 hours…

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Electroencephalograph (EEG)

Sleep stages:

Daily cycles of awake/sleep time follow a circadian rhythm but when asleep the body follows
an ultradian rhythm
The stages of sleep are comprised of 4 stages of NREM and the fifth REM
REM = Rapid Eye Movement which…

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Suggests synchronisation of menstrual cycles can be effected by pheromones
Pheromones act like hormones but effect bodies of others

Debates/approaches

Free will vs determinism and the biological approach
Psychological disorders arise from Infradian rhythms such as PMS and SAD
PMS has been used…

Page 5

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




These internal pacemakers are innate, inherited, genetic mechanism
2 key structures in the brain
o Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
o Pineal gland
SCN is a tiny cluster of nerve cells located in the hypothalamus
SCN obtains information about levels of light from eye via…

Page 6

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Before electricity people's activities were dictated by the light however now there is
flexibility
The most dramatic effects seen when we challenge our inbuilt clocks by changing external
zietgebers more rapidly than they are used to
See in shift work ­ traditional rotation…

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Czeisler introduced a forward shift rotation and increasing the time spent on each shift to 21
days allowing the body to adjust properly
They found after 9 months workers reported feeling less stressed, fewer health problems
and managers reported higher productivity
High mundane…

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




They looked at the animals in their natural habitat so there will be a high ecological validity
However they had to take out to measure REM of EEG which may ruin it slightly

Lifespan changes in sleep

Changes:

Function of sleep changes for…

Page 9

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Physiological changes in old people result in reduced sleep for the old which can be
experienced in terms of problems with staying asleep such as apnoea or illness
Reduction of deep sleep at old age reduces the production of growth hormones explaining
some…

Page 10

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PSYA3 AQA psychology: biological rhythms and sleep




Siegel and Rogawski suggest that REM sleep allows for a break in neurotransmitter release
which will allow for a break in neurotransmitter release
This permits neurons to regain their sensitivity and allows the body to function properly
Support for this comes from anti-depressants…

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kate

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Found this really helpful thanks! :3

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