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Revision…read more

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AND SPACE?…read more

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Demographic transition: how the rate of
growth changes over time
· Carrying capacity ­ the number of people who can be adequately
supported by the productive capacity of the land
· Demographic transition ­ the historical shift of birth and death rates
from high to low levels in a population
· Stage 1 ­ Total population is low but it is balanced due to high birth
rates and high death rates.
· Stage 2 ­ Total population rises as death rates fall due to
improvements in health care and sanitation. Birth rates remain high.
· Stage 3 ­ Total population is still rising rapidly. The gap between birth
and death rates narrows due to the availability of contraception and
fewer children being needed to work - due to the mechanisation of
farming. The natural increase is high.
· Stage 4 ­ Total population is high, but it is balanced by a low birth rate
and a low death rate. Birth control is widely available and there is a
desire for smaller families.
· Stage 5 ­ Total population is high but going into decline due to an
ageing population. There is a continued desire for smaller families,
with people opting to have children later in life.…read more

Slide 4

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Demographic transition
· Birth rates in Stages 1 and 2 were generally higher
· The death rate fell much more steeply and for different reasons
· Some countries had much larger base populations and thus the impact of high growth in Stage
2 and the early part of stage 3 has been greater
· For those countries in stage 3, the fall in fertility has also been steeper
· The relationship between population change and economic development has been much more
· Demographic momentum ­ the phenomenon of continued population increase despite
reduced fertility rates. The population continues to grow due to a large proportion of it
population entering its reproductive years…read more

Slide 5

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The components of population change
Births Immigrants
· Net migration ­ the balance between the
immigration rate and the emigration rate
· Natural change ­ the difference between
the birth rate and the death rate
· Crude birth rate ­ the number of births per
Natural change Net migration
· Crude death rate ­ the number of deaths
per 1000
· Life expectancy ­ the average number of
years a personal may expect to live when
Deaths Emigrants…read more

Slide 6

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Factors affecting population change
Demographic Social/cultural Economic Political
· Mortality rate · Tradition demands · Children seen as · During 1930s,
· Sub Saharan Africa ­ high rates of asset Germany, Italy and
Infant mortality of 80 reproduction · Producers rather Japan all offered
per 1000 · Education, than consumers inducements and
especially female · Cost of child is a concessions to those
literacy, is key to major factor in with large families
lower fertility extending families · Malaysia ­ adopted
· Knowledge of birth · Economic growth a similar policy
control allows for spending
· Greater social on health, housing,
awareness nutrition and
· More opportunity for education
employment · Leads to lower infant
mortality…read more

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