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Page 1

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Case study: Antarctica
Recreation and Tourism

80,000 tourists a year expected in 2010
History ­ whaling, sealing and fishing
Antarctic Treaty ­ 1959 countries signed this to stop the resource exploitation

Environmental impacts
Concentrated around certain bases so concentrated pollution, disturbance to habitats
Tourist ships disturbs seas life especially…

Page 2

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Case study: Alaskan Pipeline

The Trans Alaskan Pipeline (TAPS)


TAPS is an 800 mile oil pipe spanning Alaska
Why is TAPS needed ­ The main oil extraction site in Alaska is Prudhoe Bay on the North coast which is
surrounded by the Beaufort Sea, which is frozen for most…

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Page 4

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Case study: The Alps Switzerland
Threats to the ecosystem

Natural threats

- Global warming melting permafrost
Landslide and floods
- Mass movement and floods destroy habitats
- Increasing in dry summers

Human threats

- Construction of ski-resorts, transmitters
- Building of roads to reach the resorts…

Page 5

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Case study: Northern Sweden ­ the Sami


Between 70,000 and 100,000 people in northern Norway Sweden and Finland
Since 1991they had their own parliament
Two groups ­ reindeer herders and sea Sami (fishing)

Environmental impacts

Minimal ­ migrated with seasons and kept herds in line with carrying capacity…

Page 6

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Case study: Siberia oil


Over 600 fields with reverse of 144 billion barrels and 1200 trillion cubic feet of gas.
70% of Russia's output
Massive expansion since 1990s with pipelines to Europe and china

Environmental impacts

Massive pollution of soil, lakes and groundwater from spills; e.g. 1994 ­…

Page 7

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Case study: Switzerland (skiing)
Recreation and Tourism


Alps receive 100 million tourist a year ­ 60% for winter sports

Environmental impacts

Skiers damage trees, kill young shoots and erode surface
Car exhaust fumes kills trees
Access roads, parking, lifts destroy habitats
Increased risk of avalanche
Bulldozing of slopes…

Page 8

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Case study: the Alps ­ Alpine convention
Manage to fix


Area of 192,000km2 with 13 million people in 6100 settlements
30,000 animal species and 13,000 plant species
Agreement between 8 countries in 1991

The challenge

Depopulation in some remote areas
Growth of tourism
Rising "imported" air pollution (acid rain)…

Page 9

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Cast study: Antarctic ban
Conserve to protect


Area of 14million km2 with 1000 temporary inhabitants in 50 research stations
1000 plant species, mostly algae and lichen
7 countries claim areas but the 1959 Antarctic treaty is signed by 46 countries so far

The challenge

Unexploited material ­ coal, oil,…

Page 10

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Case study: Thames MEDC
Rivers as a multi-use resource


Covers 13,000 km2
Population of 12 million
Very uniform flow ­ estuary


Old water mill but no HEP


Bulky industries like oil refining, cement, paper along the estuary
Thames corridor of hi-tech industry

Water supply

Supplies 5000 million…


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