Tourism and Energy Notes for Geography OCR

Tourism and energy notes for geography ocr 

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The Energy Issue
What are the sources of energy and how do these vary in their
global pattern?
The global energy mix is made up of both finite (fossil fuels and nuclear power) and renewable
sources (e.g. HEP and wind) in which they vary, depending on their availability over time and space.
Global Pattern
Oil Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro
Where it is Relatively Asia Pacific, Europe and Rare but South and
the major common, 50% Eurasia, 33% Europe at Central
source? Middle East 10% America,
has 50% 28%
Reserves 1,208,000 Over 3 trillion 181 trillion m3 Few built Limited as
million barrels tons since best sites
Chernobyl used
Chief areas 61.5% 27% USA Mid East 41% Main reserve Asia
of reserves Middle East Eurasia 35% of uranium in
Chief user USA China Russia France China, Brazil
Fastest Asia ­ China Asia ­ China Europe and Asia India and South
growing 7% a year double by China America
demand 2025
Other Can be used Increasingly
to produce from
gas and oil unconventional
Factors Influencing the Energy Supply
Physical Economic Social Political
Climate (wind, water, Technology Safety Agreement with
solar) neighbours/borders
(e.g. international
Water supply Demand Noise Security
Vegetation type and Site Pollution (air, water, of Anti-pollution
volume (bio fuels) solids ­e.g. acid rain) agreements
Tidal range Transport (of fuel and Opposition from
energy) voters
Geology (fossil fuels, Cost of fuels/ operation Quotas on renewables
Waste Disposal Cost
Energy Mix: the relative contribution of different energy sources to a country's energy

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What is the relationship between energy use and economic
As economies develop, there is an increased demand for energy. There is a positive correlation
between economic development and energy use, as one increases, so does the other.
If economic development increases (e.g.…read more

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Increasing energy efficiency - Improving energy efficiency,
e.g.…read more

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What are the social, economic and environmental issues associated
with the increasing demand for energy?
The exploitation of energy resources brings both, opportunities and problems for people and the
Why is the energy demand increasing?
Increased standards of living, e.g. electrical appliances and cars
Increased population
Changing lifestyles, e.g. use of computers
Increased mobility, e.g. phones
Changing technology, e.g.…read more

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Norway (benefits) and Nigeria (problems)
Norway (opportunities) Nigeria (negative impacts)
Background - Population: 4.…read more

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How can energy supply be managed to ensure sustainability?
Managing energy supply is about balancing socio-economic and environmental needs. This requires
detailed planning and management.
- Sustainability: meeting our needs while not compromising the capacity of future
generations to meet their needs
Management challenges
How to balance the economic needs (jobs and power for industry) against the
environmental need (reducing pollution) and social needs (energy equality).…read more

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Germany and Iceland
Fifth largest consumer of energy in the world ­ Oil (36%), gas (23%), coal (12.9%)
Only has coal reserves
In 2006 renewables accounted for 4.6% of Germanys energy supply, with 10.2% of its
total energy consumption
5% of energy comes from hydroelectricity in the pre alpine region
Early 2007, 18000 wind turbines, producing more than 20000MW, where it obtains
5.…read more

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The Growth of Tourism
In what ways has the global pattern of tourism changed?
Tourism has developed into a global industry in the last fifty years and now features in every
continent. The growth of tourism and its changing patterns are influenced by a variety of factors and
these vary from place to place.…read more

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What is the relationship between the growth of tourism and
economic development?
As economies develop there is an increased demand for tourism.
If economic development increases then there will be:
More disposable income
More leisure time
Improved transport
Few political controls on travel
More access to media
If tourism increases then there will be:
Increased foreign exchange earnings and foreign investments
More employment
Improved transport
Greater exposure to cultures
Growth of industries supplying tourists e.g.…read more

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What are the social, economic and environmental issues associated
with the growth of tourism?
Tourism brings both opportunities and problems for people and the environment.
Benefits of tourism
Environmental Economic Social
- Encourages conservation - Creation of employment - Improved education to
e.g.…read more


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