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River Environments
What processes and factors are responsible for distinctive
Slope processes and channel processes give rise to distinctive fluvial landforms. These processes are
influenced by a range of factors which vary from place to place.

Features of Erosion and/or Deposition
Features Features Both
of of
Erosion Depositio

Page 2

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Graded stream profiles: erosion
Waterfalls and gorges: hydraulic action, abrasion & mass movement
Potholes: abrasion
Braided channels: deposition
Floodplains: flooding, deposition, snow melt & rain
Levees: flooding & deposition
Deltas: deposition
Meanders: erosion & deposition
Ox-bow lakes: erosion & deposition
Deposition is the load the river is carrying which is…

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Recreation & Leisure Cotswold water park- Iguazu Falls- world
windsurfing, sailing, heritage site
etc. Attracts 1,500,000
Valley of Cherwood- visitors a year
sports ground, 4 & 5* hotels near falls
botanical gardens, etc.
Water Supply Overuse= low flow Sao Paulo
4700m litres distracted
Used 8x from
Cotswold before
reaching Thames…

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Slope gradient: steeper= faster run-off
Vegetation: good interceptor, slow run-off
Geology: Porous- allows water in, slows down flooding; Igneous- no water in
Precipitation type: snowmelt- rapid melt= seasonal flooding
Drainage density: Greater density= shorter distance to travel
Rainfall duration and intensity: High intensity, short duration storms= flash floods


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What are the management challenges associated with the
development of river landscapes?
Successful management requires an understanding of physical processes. Managing river landscapes
is often about balancing socio-economic and environmental needs. This requires detailed planning
and management.

Managing the Thames at Managing the flood risk:
Oxford Bangladesh

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Prevent backflow- Inc. risk of
cholera and malaria
Loss of biodiversity- dries
out land
Decrease in flooding= less
fish, Dec. in protein source
among poor
Proposed 8km long, 25m wide
Strategies flood channel from
Thames at Binsey to
Sandford Locke
Western corridor- SSSI
Water storage areas- 4
Large farmland…

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Ways that ice and water shape the landscape to produce distinctive landforms
Climate & Weathering:
Plucking- ripping out material from bedrock, bottom of glaciers, Downhill pressure/drag, once
plucked it can be used for abrasion.
Abrasion- sand paper effect, material carried by glacier, more angular load-greater erosion, difficult
to observe- dig…

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Waterfalls & scree which now often covers sides of troughs. Moraines
Ribbon Lakes now lie on floor damming water forming ribbon lakes.
Moraines Gorner Glacier, Subglacial- debris carried in ice making way into crevasse-
Switzerland found at base, after steady retreat of Ice.
Medial- 2 glaciers meet lateral moraine of…

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Changes in Europe's permafrost
25C Summer dropping to 2C & 6C in Winter
High elevations- flowers/Low elevations- growing
Colour attracts insects for pollination
Coniferous trees photosynthesise at low temps.
Threatens Alpine villages and ski villages with rock falls and landslides.
PACE- monitors creeping effect of climate change on…

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Inupiaq rely on marine ecosystems while Gwich'in rely on Caribou herds
Area 1002- near Prudhoe Bay, reserves of oil and gas
Less than 1/10th of ANWR but crucial to Caribou and ecosystem
Oil and Gas extraction disrupt Caribou
Oil and gas- greater security on supplies cutting imports
Modern technologies used…







Pretty sure these are for the old specification, just a heads up for anyone else looking at these. 

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