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PINATUBO 800 deaths- collapse of
infrustructure,flooding and disease
MANILA trench 1991 60000
Oceanic pacific
philippines, south evacuated thanks to US
plate under
east asia 100000 homeless Clark air base plan,
continental they played a
eurasian plate large role in
$700 damage evacuation
last eruptiom
3000 and 5000 IMPACTS
-SO2 emissions into stratosphere
caused drop in climate 0.5 as it reflected more
radiation. it will remain in atmosphere for years which
can further effect human health, food crops
7.…read more

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Icelandic
2010
north american
plate and
eurasian plate
diverge
harness volcanic power
-huge disruption to air travel since 9/11. Thousands of
passengers had to travel home overland. air hot water and steam close proximity to surface from the magma transfering heat to the surface
companies lost millions=trade sector, tourism
effected. just after banking crisis.…read more

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MINOR INTRUSIVE
LANDFORMS tourism
GEYSER
ground water is heated from magma
beneath earths surface. pressure is built
and the water and gas explodes. they are
short lived as the water runs out or the
HOT SPRINGS
vent collapses. however the vents can
ground water heated from deep below
refill and the cycle is repeated.
the earths surface. contains minerals
dissolved from contact with the rocks.…read more

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MINOR EXTRUSIVE
BATHOLITH
DYKE SILL
magma slowly cools and solidifies as large
verticle intrusions which cut accross horizontal cooling of magma with verticle
crystals. erosion exposes this.…read more

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CONSTRUCTIVE
hotter lava 1200
sheild shape as lava spreads
slowly cooling = large crystals
regular
gentle = accessible
little gas
basaltic, low in silica
crust is created
Sunday, 2 June 13…read more

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DESTRUCTIVE
violent + explosive > superheated gas and steam
ocean trenches
impure lava
gaseous= build of pressure = explosive
irregular- long dormant periods
cone shape
sticky/viscous
layers of ash
rhyolitic, rich in silica
crust is created and destroyed
acidic = Andes
Sunday, 2 June 13…read more

Page 8

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Managing Volcanoes warning signs
swelling of ground
surface
MODIFY THE EVENT?! gas emissions
Divert lava flows animal behavior
spray lava with sea water to cool and slow-
the heat output can be used for geothermal
energy!
PRIMARY SECONDARY
-tephra solid particulates ejected -tsunami
-lava flows -lahars- NEVADO DEL RUIZ 1985
-ash clouds -flooding (glacier melts from heat
-pyroclastic flows high velocity, of lava)
gas charged hot -climate change
-gas emissions -landslides
Sunday, 2 June 13…read more

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HAITI QUAKE north american and
carribean plate
soft 7.0 M
RED
CROSS
sediments 13km shallow
amplified huge rise in
and US food prices strike slip fault
ground
MILITARY 250,000 deaths
shaking
cholera
epicentre
near capital P-
au-prince LONG TERM
-reform farming sector to ensure self
sufficiency and stockpiling
-investment in mental health sparse
rapid population growth has -building standards- key to population history of
caused building of weak houses growth. reinforced corners with steel.…read more

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CHRISTCHURCH 7.…read more

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