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Difference in alcohols
Primary alcohols:
Cs if it helps in this instance.
they are a carbon chain. Think of The Rs as
Alkyl groups are represented with R, meaning
· The carbon the OH group is attached
to, is attached to 1 carbon
Secondary alcohols:
· The carbon the OH group is attached
to, is attached to 2 carbons
Tertiary alcohols:
· The carbon the OH group is attached
to, is attached to 3 carbons…read more

Slide 3

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Oxidation of alcohols
(When alcohol is completely combusted (Not oxidised), as with all combustions, it forms CO2 and H2O)
Primary alcohols:
Partial oxidation forms an aldehyde
Complete oxidation forms a carboxylic acid
Reagants/conditions needed for primary alcohol aldehyde:
· Pottasium diachromate 6
·Sulphuric acid
Carboxylic acid
Reagants/conditions needed for primary alcohol carboxylic
· Pottasium diachromate 6 in excess
·Concentrated Sulphuric acid
·Heat/boil under reflux
·Distill…read more

Slide 4

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Secondary alcohols:
· Oxidation of secondary alcohols always forms Ketones, no further
oxidation is possible.
· Secondary alcohol Ketone
Reagents and conditions necessary:
· Pottasium diachromate 6 in excess
· Concentrated sulphuric acid
· Heat (No reflux required)
· Distill
Tertiary alcohols do not oxidise…read more

Slide 5

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Testing for alcohols
PCl5 (Phosphorus pentachloride)-
When mixed with an alcohol, with give off white steamy fumes
If litmus paper is used, blue litmus turns red, red litmus stay red in
presence of alcohol.
C3H7OH + PCl5 C3H7Cl + POCl3 + HCl
Adding a small chunk of sodium to alcohol will cause the sodium to fizz
and decrease in size.
2C3H7OH + 2Na 2C3H7O-Na+ + H2
Potassium diachromate 6 in heated water bath-
Doesn't change colour: Tertiary or non-alcohol
Changes from orange to green solution, it is either a primary or
secondary alcohol.…read more

Slide 6

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Alkanes (CnH2n+2)
Note on alkanes:
Combustion: Up to C4H10 they
Exothermic are gases at room
Non-toxic products, Hence their use as fuel. temp.
Example : C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O C5H12 ­ C12H26 are
· This uses the free radical mechanism, which involves UV radiation splitting a
pair of halogens (heterolytically, which means one electron goes to each atom
from the bonding pair), and these then react with an alkane.
For an explanation of the free radical mechanism: http:
C6H14 + Br2 C6H13Br + HBr
C6H13Br + Br2 C6H12Br2 + HBr…read more



Typo/error on last slide (slide 6) where - homolytic means one electron from the bonding pair goes to each atom, heterolytic means both electrons in a bonding pair go to one of the atoms creating a negative ion (and the atom that loses the electron it donated obviously becomes a positive ion). The slide says heterolytic but should say homolytic.

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