Alcohol reactions

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  • Created by: aggy98
  • Created on: 18-12-14 21:49
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  • Alcohol reactions
    • Combustion
      • complete occurs when there is a plentiful supply of oxygen
      • When complete combustion occurs, CO2 and water are produced
      • The following is the balanced equation for the complete combustion of ethanol
        • CH3(l)+1.5O2(g)  --> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
    • Reaction with sodium
      • very similiar to the reaction of sodium with water, which produces sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is also a very volatile reaction.
      • The reaction of alcohols and sodium is very similar to that with water, just less volatile. It reacts gently with ethanol to produce sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas
      • The balanced equation is as follows
        • CH3CH2OH+ Na--> CH3CH2O(-)Na(+)
    • Halide reaction
      • alcohols react with hydrogen halides to produce halogenoalkanes.
      • This is known as a substituition reaction- the hydroxyl group is replaced by a halogen atom from the halid
      • The equation is as follows- C4H9OH+HCl  --->  CH3CCH3ClCH3 + H2O
      • this reaction occurs fastest with tertiary alcohols whilst more vigourous conditions are required for the slower reaction of primary alcohols
    • Oxidation reactions with potassium manganate
      • Oxidation of primary alcohols
        • This involves two stages- the first oxidation produces an aldehyde and unless this is immediately distilled another reaction will occur and a carboxylic acid will be produced
          • first stage is produces an aldehyde which can then be tested for and if present the indicator added will turn a blue/purple
          • if the aldehyde distillate is allowed to fall back into the reacting mixture it will again oxidise to form a carboxylic acid which can be tested for and will turn yellow/orange when indicator is added
            • it is not red because some aldehyde may still be present
      • Oxidation of secondary alcohols
        • There is only one stage involved in this reaction and it produces a ketone
        • Reflux reaction
      • tertiary alocohols do not react and thus do not get oxidised


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