OCR SPEC A geography [Energy in Holmewood]

Notes for the energy case for Holmewood

 

 

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Preview of OCR SPEC A geography [Energy in Holmewood]

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GCSE Revision
ENERGY CASE STUDY
HOLMEWOOD ­ The effects of coal pit closure
Background
Holmewood is on the north Derbyshire coalfield. Small amounts of cola have
been mined here since the middle ages. Most houses here were built in 1901 ­
1908 to house the miners who worked in the pit when new shafts were sunk.
The population was 776 in 1901 and trebled by 1911. The town produced coal
for railways and supplied local brick works.
Pit Closure
1985 ­ 34% of people who lived in north-east Derbyshire still depended on the
mining industry for employment. Since 1985, all the deep mines in Derbyshire
were closed and many jobs lost.
There were few other jobs to turn to. However a few miners were
re-deployed to collieries (pits) outside the region.
As well as direct job losses from mining there were indirect job losses too in
the supporting industries. It is estimated that for every 100 mining jobs lost,
50 other jobs were also lost.
Economic Costs
1987 ­ Holmewood unemployment rate was 18% - National average 10%
Unemployment = Less income for families to spend therefore less
demand for goods and services from local businesses.
Holmewood lost shops and services as trade declined.
Environmental Costs
Area unattractive to industry and commercial development because of;
poor housing that lacked basic amenities
blighted and derelict landscapes
substandard infrastructure
Social Costs
% Claiming Benefits, children on free school meals, those living in rented
accommodation higher then the national average.
Less car ownership compared to national average.
Housing vacant as families leave to find work.
High levels of illness and increased death rate due to stress & poor diet.
Unemployment can cause social isolation and low self esteem.
Redevelopment
Reclamation of old coal pits.
Grants & initiatives to revitalise former coal mining communities.
Enterprise Zones ­ encourage new industries to set up.

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Holmewood Enterprise Zone
Advertises improved infrastructure and links with the M1 Motorway.
Offers a range of tax and financial incentives such as no rates to pay
for 10 years.
Fast track planning and administration procedures.
Purpose built units built to create 60 jobs per hectare.
However;
Holmewood itself only supplies 23% of the workforce to the enterprise
zone.
Unemployment in Holmewood remains above national average.…read more

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