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Diagnosis- Categorising
DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
· The DSM is an American classification manual, which only deals
with mental health disorders, not medical. It gets updated every
few years
· Disorders are categorised on 5 different axes-
- Clinical Disorders (e.g. depression, schizophrenia)
- Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation (e.g. anti-social
behaviour disorder)
- Medical Conditions relating to mental disorders
- Psychosocial/ Environmental Problems (e.g. child abuse/divorce/
anything which has happened to them over the past year)
- Global Assessment of Functioning…read more

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Diagnosis- Categorising
Evaluation of DSM
ethnocentrism- it's American, so it can only
be applied to American people
holism- looks at 5 different axes so doesn't
just focus on one thing
reliability/validity- it was compiled by over
1000 people and is constantly updated…read more

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Diagnosis- Definitions
Rosenhan & Seligman
· They outline behaviours that can help when diagnosing
dysfunctional behaviour
· One definition of dysfunctional behaviour is deviation from
social norms- if society doesn't approve of a behaviour it is
dysfunctional. For example, a social norm in our society is
queuing in shops, or wearing appropriate clothing in certain
places
· Another definition is failure to function adequately- if
someone isn't functioning in a way which allows them to
live independently this is abnormal. For example if they feel
they're suffering, or if they make others feel uncomfortable
around them.…read more

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Diagnosis- Definitions
Evaluation of Rosenhan & Seligman
- Deviation from social norms definition:
- Social norms vary across cultures, e.g. in some Greek
villages, fire walking is a normal thing to do, but in the UK it
would be seen as abnormal
- It's era-dependent as social norms vary through time, e.g.
until 1967, homosexuality was illegal in the UK, now its
widely accepted
- Failure to function adequately definition:
- They might not be functioning adequately due to
social/economic conditions
- Some people may appear to function adequately but in fact
have a psychological abnormality…read more

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Diagnosis- Gender Bias
Ford & Widiger
· Mental health statistics show that certain disorders are
diagnosed more frequently in men, and some more in
women, suggesting biological differences in mental health
disorders
· Ford & Widiger did an experiment using 266 psychologists.
They were given case histories which showed either
antisocial behaviour disorder (aggression/risk taking) or
histrionic personality disorder (high emotions/ attention
seeking) and they had to identify the sex of the patient.
· They found that the psychologists think men are more
likely to have APD, and women are more likely to have
HPD, so diagnosis can have gender bias…read more

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