OCR Geography Case Studies- Natural Hazards

4 Case Studies for the Natural Hazards section:

- Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2004- Tectonic Hazard

- Northridge California Earthquake, 1994- Tectonic Hazard

- Sahel Drought- 1984-1985- Climatic Hazard

- Hurricane Katrina, 2005- Climatic Hazard

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  • Created by: A.Siddika
  • Created on: 09-04-12 14:33
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Case Study: Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 (LEDC) ­ Tectonic Hazard
Background Info:
Occurred on 26th December 2004
GMT ­ 00.59
Magnitude ­ 9
Strongest earthquake in the world in 40 years
A lot of people did not know what was happening
1 and a half no response to Sri Lanka
Diseases spread and sewage and dead bodies everywhere
Fishing boats were destroyed
Low lying areas flooded
Sea water contaminated
Millions of people left homeless
Tourist attraction- people were left in horror
Billions of dollars' worth damage for tourist resorts e.g. Phi Phi island
India, Bangladesh, Somalia, Malaysia, Madagascar and Indonesia were affected
230,000 people were affected
Doctors in Indonesia were killed do few trained doctors
More orphans
Spread of diseases
Impacts worsened because people failed to inform others.
Human Responses:
Massive international response- Red Cross Workers
Clean bottled water supplied
Food and clothing were sent out
Destruction of transport and technology it was harder to get aid
Coffins provided
Helicopters, and Sri lankan authorities held search parties
Under water earthquakes and volcanoes
Two tectonic plates meet and grind together, Indian plate goes under Burmese plate, stress
released causes jolt plates into a new position. The jolt causes a tsunami

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Case Study: Northridge, California 1994 (MEDC) ­ Tectonic Hazard
Background Info:
Occurred- 17 January 1994
Occurred at 4.30 am beneath the San Fernando valley
Northridge is located about 30km north-west of Los Angeles
6.…read more

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Several gas and water mains severed
Human Responses:
Hundreds of workers (FEMA) were developed in south California to help communities
More than 600,000 people applied for federal disaster assistance
FEMA spent millions of federal money helping the area recover
Predictions- a larger earthquake by 2028
Case Study: Ethiopia in the Sahel 1984 (Drought)(LEDC) ­ Climatic Hazard
Background Info:
The Sahel region in Africa is an area prone to drought
Ethiopia is east of Sudan and north of Eritrea, it is located in the Sahara…read more

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Pasture and water are starting to dry up, herdsman are migrating with their cattle.…read more

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People sought refuge in the Superdome stadium.
Conditions were unhygienic and there was a shortage of food and water.
Looting was commonplace throughout the city.
Tension was high and many felt vulnerable and unsafe.
1 million people were made homeless and
1,200 people drowned in the floods.
Oil facilities were damaged and as a result petrol prices rose in the UK and USA.
Human Responses:
There was much criticism of the authorities for their handling of the disaster.…read more


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