OCR Geography Case Studies- Natural Hazards

4 Case Studies for the Natural Hazards section:

- Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2004- Tectonic Hazard

- Northridge California Earthquake, 1994- Tectonic Hazard

- Sahel Drought- 1984-1985- Climatic Hazard

- Hurricane Katrina, 2005- Climatic Hazard

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Case Study: Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 (LEDC) ­ Tectonic Hazard

Background Info:

Occurred on 26th December 2004
GMT ­ 00.59
Magnitude ­ 9
Strongest earthquake in the world in 40 years
A lot of people did not know what was happening
1 and a half no response to Sri Lanka…

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Case Study: Northridge, California 1994 (MEDC) ­ Tectonic Hazard

Background Info:

Occurred- 17 January 1994

Occurred at 4.30 am beneath the San Fernando valley

Northridge is located about 30km north-west of Los Angeles

6.7 on Richter scale

Occurred early morning, public holiday minimised death toll

Duration ­ 20 seconds


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Several gas and water mains severed

Human Responses:

Hundreds of workers (FEMA) were developed in south California to help communities


More than 600,000 people applied for federal disaster assistance

FEMA spent millions of federal money helping the area recover

Predictions- a larger earthquake by 2028

Case Study: Ethiopia in…

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Pasture and water are starting to dry up, herdsman are migrating with their cattle.


Short rains and long rains failed to supply enough water for the country's needs

Drought occurs when the moist rainy air at the equator is prevented from moving North and
reaching countries of the Sahel…

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People sought refuge in the Superdome stadium.
Conditions were unhygienic and there was a shortage of food and water.
Looting was commonplace throughout the city.
Tension was high and many felt vulnerable and unsafe.
1 million people were made homeless and
1,200 people drowned in the floods.
Oil facilities were…


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