Geography Paper 2 OCR B NEW SPEC


Define urbanisation.

The process of towns and cities developing and becoming bigger as their population increases.

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Describe the rate of urbanisation in ACs, LIDCs an

  • ACs are more economically developed, e.g. UK, Japan and Germany. Urbanisation happened earlier in ACs than in less developed countries and most of the populaton already live in urban areas. ACs have very slow rates of urban growth and many people desiring a better quality of life are moving away from overcrowded cities to rural areas. Good transport and communication networks mean that people in ACs can live in rural areas and commute to the cities or even work from home.
  • LIDCs are less economically developed, e.g. Ethiopia, Nepal and Afghanistan. LIDCs have the fastest rate of urbanisation. 
  • EDCs are those where economic development is increasing, sometimes rapidly, e.g. Brazil, China, Russia and India. The % of the population living in urban areas varies. Some EDCs like Thailand, Mexico and China are experiencing rapid urban growth.
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Define megacity and where are they found?

  • Megacity: a city with a population over ten million. 
  • A megacity can be a single city, or a conurbation - where neighbouring towns and cities have spread and merged together.
  • In 1950 most of the biggest and most influential cities were in ACs. There were only two megacities, Tokyo and New York.
  • By 2014, there were twenty-eight megacities. It is predicted to rise to 41 by 2030.
  • More than two-thirds of current megacities are in poorer countries (EDCs and LIDCs), mostly in Asia, e.g. Mumbai in India.
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Define world city and where are they found?

  • World city: a city that has an influence on the world, considered to be an important node in the global economic system, one with an iconic status and buildings.
  • They are centres for trade and business. 
  • Lots of people and goods from international destinations pass through them. 
  • They also tend to be hubs of culture and science, with international media centres.
  • In 1950, the only world cities were London, Paris, Tokyo and New York. 
  • The number of world cities has increased.
  • Most are still in ACs but some are EDCs such as Dubai, Moscow and Rio de Janeiro.
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What 3 main factors cause urbanisation?

  • Rural-urban migration
  • Internal growth
  • Decrease in death rate
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What is rural-urban migration?

  • Rural-urban migration: the movement of people from the countrysides to the cities.
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Push and pull factors for rural-urban migration:


  • Natural disasters - floods and earthquakes damage property and farmland which people can't afford.
  • Mechanisation of agricultural equipment - farms require fewer workers = fewer jobs.
  • Droughts - makes land unproductive so people can't support themselves.
  • Conflict or war - flee home.


  • Jobs - there are more jobs in urban areas that are often better paid.
  • Healthcare and education - access to healthcare and education.
  • Family members - to join them.
  • Better quality of life - they think they will have a better quality of life.
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What is internal growth and what causes it?

  • When the birth rate is higher than the death rate.
  • The birth rate tends to be higher in cities because it's normally young people that move to ubran areas (to find work). These people can have children in the cities, increasing the populaton.
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Decrease in death rate and urbanisation.

  • In LIDCs, better healthcare can be found in cities than in rural areas.
  • This means people living in urban areas live longer, reducing death rates and increasing the proportion of people in urban areas.
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Economic impacts of urbanisation in LIDCS.

  • Jobs - not enough = high levels of unemployment.
  • Informal sector - lots of people work = jobs aren't taxed or regulated by the government = work long hours, dangerous conditions and little pay.
  • Education - no access to education = unable to develop skills needed to get better jobs.
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Social impacts of urbanisation in LIDCs.

  • Houses - not enough for everyone = squatter settlements = badly built and overcrowded.
  • Infrastructure - not built fast enough = no access to basic services like clean water, proper sewers or electricity.
  • Crime - high levels.
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Environmental impacts of urbanisation in LIDCs.

  • Rubbish - not collected = rubbish heaps = can be toxic.
  • Sewage and toxic chemicals - can get into rivers = harms wildlife.
  • Vehicles - roads can't cope = congestion = greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.
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What is suburbanisation?

  • The movement of people from city centres to the outskirts.
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Push factors of suburbanisation.

  • Urban areas - crowded, polluted, high crime rates, little green. Believe quality of life is lower in the inner city than in the suburbs.
  • Houses - countries develop, governments clear low quality city centre housing and provide new houses outside the city for residents. E.g. slum clearances in England between 1950 and 1970 to council estates on the outskirts of urban areas.
  • Deindustrialisation - occurs in city centres, when manufacturing moves out of an area = people leave cities in search of employment in new industrial areas.
  • Unemployment - increases in city = less money to spend = shops and services close = less local services for people living in city centre.
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Pull factors of suburbanisation.

  • Population density - suburban areas can offer lower population density = more open green spaces = percieved safety = more family friendly.
  • Planning laws - more relaxed outside city centres = easier to build houses. In UK, developers build new housing estates on the edges of urban areas, offering large, modern houses with gardens.
  • Public transport - improvements in public transport and increasing car ownership = people can live in outskirts and commute to the city for work.
  • Rents - cheaper on the outskirts of cities = attracts businesses = jobs and services become available = people are encouraged to move.
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Economic impacts of suburbanisation.

  • Less people - fewer people living in inner city areas and parts of cities that are mainly offices can be deserted after work hours. Shops, restaurants and other amenities may struggle for customers = close down.
  • Business leave - unemployment increases = lower living standards and poverty.
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Social impacts of suburbanisation.

  • Derelict buildings - people + business move out = city centre can become abandoned and derelict = city centre becomes run down.
  • Economic and ethnic segregation - wealthier middle-class people may move to suburbs where there is a better quality of life. People that are left behind are poorer and are often foreign immigrants.
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Environmental impacts of suburbanisation.

  • Wildlife habitats affected - new housing estates are built on open countryside.
  • Surface run-off and flooding - urban areas spread, more ground is concreted over = increase surface run-off (when water flows quickly overland) = increases risk of flooding.
  • Congestion and air pollution - people who live in suburbs mostly own cars and may commute to city for work = number of cars on the roads increases.
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What is counter-urbanisation?

  • The movement of people away from urban areas to smaller settlements and rural areas.
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Push factors for counter-urbanisation.

  • Traffic congestion and parking - suburbs and city centres have this problem.
  • Value for money - housing in urban areas and the suburbs is often very expensive. People feel as though they aren't getting value for money and move further from the city = prices are lower there.
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Pull factors for counter-urbanisation.

  • Houses - houses in smaller settlements and rural areas are often bigger and have more outside space than those in city centres and the suburbs.
  • Communication services - improved communication services = easy for people to live in rural areas and work from home. Companies no longer need to be in city centres = can move to rural areas where land is cheaper = jobs.
  • Car ownership - increased car ownership and improved public transport mean that people can live further from the city and commute to work.
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Economic impacts of counter-urbanisation.

  • Increase in business - newer residents are often professionals or retired people who have higher disposable incomes.
  • Shops and services close - wealthier residents who own cars are more likely to travel to use shops and services in urban areas.
  • Farmers can make money - by selling unwanted land or buildings for housing.
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Environmental impacts of counter-urbanisation.

  • Air pollution and congestion - most people in rural areas own cars.
  • Wildlife habitats are affected - new housing estates are often built on open countrysides.
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What is re-urbanisation?

  • The movement of people back into urban areas.
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Push factors for re-urbanisation.

  • Jobs - may be a lack of jobs in rural or suburban areas.
  • Fewer leisure and entertainment - rural areas provide this.
  • House prices - counter-urbanisation may cause high house prices in rural areas.
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Pull factors for re-urbanisation.

  • Deindustrialisation - industries and businesses move out of cities = government policies often favour brownfield sites (developed sites that have been developed before but left derelict) over greenfield sites (sites that have never been built on) = people are attracted back into the cities by new developments.
  • Education - most universities are based in urban areas, so young people move there for education and many stay.
  • Young, single people - often want to live close to their work in areas with good entertainment services. For e.g. Notting Hill in London attracts young, affluent workers because it is a lively area that is well connected to the city centre.
  • Once started continues - once re-urbanisation has started, it tends to continue - as soon as a few businesses invest and people start to return, it encourages other businesses to invest.
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Economic impacts of re-urbanisation.

  • Boosting the economy - as people move back into the city centre, new shops and services open, which boosts the economy in the city.
  • Skills and jobs - jobs created in new businesses may not be accessible to the original residents, many of whom are unskilled or semi-skilled.
  • Tourism - may increase if city centre is improved = brings money into the city which can be spent on improving the area even more.
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Social impacts of re-urbanisation.

  • Unemployment - as shops and businesses return, jobs are created = less unemployment = reduce crimes like theft.
  • Schools - local state schools can benefit from the increased number of students, however, wealthier people moving into an area may choose to send their children to private schools or better-performing schools away from the city centre.
  • Houses - original residents in the area being re-urbanised are often on low incomes and may not be able to afford housing as prices increase = move to cheaper areas of the city.
  • Tension - between original and new residents = possible crime or violence.
  • Newer residents - shops and services catering to he newer, more wealthy residents (e.g. cafes and designer clothes shops) may replace shops and services targeted at original residents (e.g. grocery stores and launderettes).
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Environmental impacts of re-urbanisation.

  • Redeveloping derelict brownfield sites - instead of greenfield sites in the countryside protects countryside wildlife habitats.
  • Wildlife habitats - some brownflied sites have been derelict for a long time, so redeveloping them can destroy urban wildlife habitats.
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CASE STUDY - AC - London introduction.

  • World city in south east England.
  • Capital city of the UK.
  • Over 20% of the UK's income comes from London.
  • Centre of UK's transport system - road, rail, air and shipping links.
  • Has influence on surrounding area - companies are attracted to the region by how close it is to London - increases job and wealth.
  • South east and east of England = two biggest regional economies - outside UK.
  • Important financial centre along with New York.
  • A lot of foreign banks.
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CASE STUDY - AC - London's population is growing..

  • Population = 8.5 million.
  • Growing because of international, national migration and internal growth.
  • International migration = around 100,000 more people arrived in London than left in 2014.
  • National migration = within the UK, young adults move to the city for work or to study but there is also counter-urbanisation where the older people and families move out of the city.
  • Internal population growth = the young population means the birth rate is higher than the death rate.
  • Have a large student population - 20% are from overseas, they come from all over the world - as a result of the number of top-class universities like UCL, LSE and Imperial College.
  • Population growth = high population density = 5000 per square kilometre.
  • Migration has occured for centuries = most ethnically diverse in the city. 
  • London's character is stronly influenced by migration - people with the same ethnicity tend to settle in the same place, creating distinctive areas - Brick Lane is famous for its curry houses due to the Bangladeshi community and Southall has a large Indian market.
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CASE STUDY - AC - Distinctive ways of life in Lond

  • Theatres (West End), museums (British Museum), art galleries (National Gallery), and London Fashion Week - one of the four biggest fashion events in the world.
  • High ethnic diversity = Chinatown for e.g. = food, music and goods = people are attracted to shop and eat there.
  • Festivals celebrating different cultures = Notting Hill CarnivalChinese New Year paradeProms and Eid in the Square.
  • Richer houses = modern apartments/larger houses with gardens = e.g. west London and the suburbs like Sutton. Poorer houses = housing density is higher = houses split to house multiple families = e.g. inner city and east London like Newham.
  • Leisure facilities = cinemas, concert venues, clubs and pubs, restaurants, shops, parks (e.g. Hyde Park) and tourist attractions like the Tower of London and the London Eye.
  • Sports facilites = Olympic games, 2012 = every year, popular mass participation sporting events around London.
  • London's wealth = consumes huge amount of resources = Londoners consume nearly 7 million tonnes of food every year, most is imported.
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CASE STUDY - AC - Challenges in London.

  • Housing availability:
  • Supply and construction of homes does not meet demand of rising population = house and rent prices rise = average rents in London are double UK's average = workers on lower incomes can't afford to live near jobs, can't even buy homes = adult house sharing is becoming more common.
  • Transport provision:
  • Roads are frequently congested = average speed between 7am and 7pm is 8mph. 1 million travel by train = overcrowded = London Underground is increasingly filled beyond capacity = delays due to overcrowding more than doubled between 2013 and 2015.
  • Access to services:
  • Healthcare is free on NHS = feel overwhelmed = waiting times for appointments increasd = ambulance has to deal with increasing traffic. Best state school (e.g. Holland Park) are often over-subscribed. Wealthy parents send children to fee-paying schools, but poorer can't.
  • Inequality:
  • Gap between rich and poor is widening = average income in Kensington and Chelsea = more than £130,000 = in Newham = less than £35,000. More than 25% of population = poverty= unhealthy lifestyles more common in deprived areas = life expectancy is 5 years lower.
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CASE STUDY - AC - Sustainable solutions

  • The Mayor's Transport Strategy = an inititative that aims to improve London's transport network and make it more sustainable by easing congestion and reducing air pollution.
  • A new railway, Crossrail (the Elizabeth line) is being built east to west across city to increase rail capacity in central London by 10%. The Bakerloo line is to be extended to Lewisham.
  • Rail + Underground capacity = increased by running more trains every hour, increasing the number of carriages on trains and making parts of the Underground service 24 hours.
  • More dedicated bus lanes to be created and making some roads more suitable for cyclists by constructing two-way Cycle Superhighways. 
  • Bikes are already available to hire easily using self-service machines.
  • Congestion charges have been introduced = discourages drivers from entering the city centre.
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CASE STUDY - LIDC - Lagos introduction.

  • City on coast of Nigeria built around western shore of a large lagoon. A LIDC city despite having the biggest economy in Africa.
  • Population = 21 million = one of fastest growing urban areas in the world = increasing by 500,000 a year = megacity.
  • City was under British rule during colonial times and was a centre of trade. Was national capital until 1991, remains main financial centre for the whole of West Africa. 
  • Has an international port and airport = important centre for regional and global trade. Contains 80% of Nigeria's industry and lots of global companies are located there.
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CASE STUDY - LIDC - Lagos population is growing.

  • Growing mainly due to rural-urban migration. Large numbers of migrants arrive in the city every year, creating an outwards urban sprawl of the city into the surrounding countryside and engulfing nearby towns.
  • Majority of people come from within Nigeria, seeking better jobs = incomes are around four times higher than those in rural areas.
  • International migration from neighbouring countries like Niger and Chad, also contributes to the growth of Lagos. There is also some migration from countries like the USA, the UK and China. Mainly people who are employed by foreign businesses operating in Lagos.
  • Migration = impact on city's character. Origins = small fishing settlement inhabited by the Yoruba people (one of Nigeria's ethnic groups). Today = very diverse population = different ethnic groups and different nationalities.
  • City = overcrowded, congested and polluted. Located on the coast = isn't space to expand = population densities are very high.
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CASE STUDY - LIDC - Distinctive ways of life in La

  • Film industry = 'Nollywood' films. Music industry = introduced music styles such as Afrobeat and Afro hip-hop. Fashion = western style fashion is becoming more common with the richer inhabitants, many people still retain traditional ways of life like fishing in the Lagoon or making crafts to sell. Leisure = pool parties, street parties, night clubbing and festivals e.g. Lagos International Jazz Festival celebrating music, food and local culture.
  • Ethnic groups = there are around 250 different ones, can lead to ethnic tension especially between different religions.
  • Slums = around 2/3 of population live in slums = people who can afford proper housing has a mix of old and new = some of the old colonial buildings remain alongside new high-rise flats and skyscrapers in the central business district = rich live on gated communities e.g. Banana Island.
  • Shopping is also popular = lots of street vendors, lots of markets specialising in different products and rows of small shops. The central business district on Lagos Island has been modernised and has more western-style shops and supermarkets including international foods.
  • Consumption of all resources is rising in Lagos - as people get wealthier they can afford to buy more consumer goods and use more resources. Lagos = responsible for more than half increase of consumption of energy in Nigeria.
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CASE STUDY - LIDC - Challenges in Lagos.

  • Squatter settlements
  • Over 60% of city's population live in slums, e.g. Makoko.
  • Houses in Makoko = flimsy, wooden huts built on stilts on the lagoon. Illegally built, people face eviction, slums are demolished to clean up the city. High levels of crime in Makoko - controlled by gangs, 'area boys' who commit crimes, informal 'police' in the slum. Can't afford 1 school.
  • Communal toilets are shared by 15 households, waste goes straight to the lagoon - full of rubbish and raw sewage. Water = communal water point = is 3 km from homes. Electricity = illegal connections.
  • Health:
  • Little access to clean water = health problems like cholera. Water = breeding ground for mosquitoes = malaria. Not enough healthcare facilities, can't pay.
  • Informal sector jobs:
  • Not enough formal jobs. 60% of population work in informal jobs e.g. street sellers, barbers etc. No protection for informal workers = long hours, little pay = $1.25 per day. 
  • Waste disposal:
  • 9000 tonnes of waster per day. Only 40% of rubbish is collected. Waste disposal + emissions aren't controlled = air + water pollution.
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CASE STUDY - LIDC - Sustainable solutions.

  • The Lagos State Integrated Waste Management Project = an initiative that is trying to improve sustainability by reducing the amount of waste that goes to landfill sites and reducing the air pollution landfill causes.
  • The World Bank = financing a project to colelct waste from food markets to turn into compost, stopping waste from going to landfill sites = releases methane as it decomposes = compost is a useful product that can be used to fertilise farming land, increasing food supplies.
  • Government aims to generate electricity from it by burning the methane released when the rubbish decomposes. Happening at Ikosi Fruit Market = electricity is generated from the rotting fruit to provide lighting for the market. 
  • A larger scale project is also underway at the landfill site at Olusosun - pipes are being placed into the rubbish to collect the methane so that it can be taken to generators. The electricity generated will be used to power the dump, which is open 24 hours a day.
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What is development?

  • A process of change that affects people's lives. It may involve an improvement in the quality of life as perceived by the people undergoing change.

Different aspects to development:

  • Economic development: progress in economic growth. E.g. how wealthy a country is, its level of industrialisation and use of technology.
  • Social development: improvement in people's standard of living. E.g. better health care and access to clean water.
  • Environmental development: advances in the management and protection of the environment. E.g. reducing pollution and increasing recylcing.

The level of development is different in different countries.

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What is GDP?

  • GDP = Gross Domestic Product.
  • The total value of goods and services a country produces in a year. 
  • Often given in US $.
  • This is a measure of wealth.
  • As a country develops, it gets higher.
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What is GDP per capita?

  • GDP per capita = Gross Domestic Product per capita.
  • The GDP (the total value of goods and services a country produces in a year) divided by the population of a country. 
  • Often given in US $.
  • Can be called GDP per head. 
  • It is a measure of wealth.
  • As a country develops, it gets higher.
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What is GNI?

  • GNI = Gross National Income. 
  • The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year, including income from overseas.
  • Often given in US $.
  • It is a measure of wealth. 
  • As a country develops, it gets higher.
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What is GNI per capita?

  • GNI per capita = Gross National Income per capita.
  • It is the GNI (the total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year, including income from overseas) divded by the population of a country. 
  • It is often given in US $.
  • Can be called GNI per head.
  • It is a measure of wealth.
  • As a country develops, it gets higher.
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What is birth rate?

  • The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year.
  • It is a measure of Women's Rights.
  • As a country develops, it gets lower.
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What is death rate?

  • The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
  • It is a measure of health.
  • As a country develops, it gets lower.
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What is life expectancy?

  • The average age a person can expect to live to.
  • It is a measure of health.
  • As a country develops, it gets higher.
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What is infant mortality rate?

  • The number of babies who die under 1 years old, per thousand babies born.
  • It is a measure of health. 
  • As a country develops, it gets lower.
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What is literacy rate?

  • The percentage of adults who can read and write.
  • It is a measure of education.
  • As a country develops it gets higher.
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What is HDI?

  • HDI = Human Development Index.
  • This is a number calculated using life expectancyeducation level (e.g. average number of years of schooling) and income per head.
  • Every country has a HDI value between 0, least developed and 1, most developed.
  • It is a measure of a lot of things.
  • As a counry develops, it gets higher.
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What is the Happy Index?

  • This is calculated by diving a country's life expectancywell-being, and level of inequality by its environmental impact.
  • Countries are graded green for goodamber for medium or red for bad.
  • It is a measure for lots of things.
  • There is no overall pattern.
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Describe the consequences of uneven development.

  • Level of development is different in different countries.
  • Comparing development of different countries shows the consequences of uneven development - differences in wealth, health and education. For example:
  • Wealth - people in more developed countries have a higher income than those in less developed countries. E.g. GNI per capita shows that the income in the UK is 20 x higher than in Chad.
  • Health - better health care means that people in more devloped countries and vice versa. E.g. people in the UK live almost 30 years longer than people in Chad. 
  • Education - people in more developed countries tend to be better educated than those in less developed countries. E.g. people in the UK spend more than twice as long in education as people in Chad.
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What is IMF?

  • The most developed countries are in north America, Europe and Australasia. The least developed countries are in central Africa and parts of Asia. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) classifies countries by their level of development.
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Where are ACs, LIDCs and EDCs found?

ACs: UK, USA, France, Canada, Australia etc.

  • Wealthiest countries in the world - GNI per capita is high and most citizens have a high standard of living. Their economy is based on tertiary and quaternary industry like services. ACs have lots of money to spend on improving education, transport and health care, so people tend to be well educated and have a high life expectancy.

LIDCs: Afghanistan, Somalia, Mali, Nepal etc. 

  • Poorest countries in the world - GNI per capita is very low and most citizens have a low standard of living. Their economy is based on primary industry like agriculture, and they don't export many goods. LIDCs don't have much money to spend on development so their level of development stays low. 

EDCs: China, Brazil, Russia, India etc.

  • Getting richer, moving from primary (mining) to secondary industry (manufacturing), exports are generally high = increasing wages = spend on development. Everything is improving.
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What physical factors affect how developed a count

  • Poor climate:
  • Poor climate = production of crops are affected = could be too dry or too cold = reduces amount of food produced = can lead to malnutrition in places like Chad or Ethiopia = fewer crops to sell = less money to spend on goods and services = lower quality of life = government recieves less money from taxes = can't develop because there is less to spend on development like improving healthcare and education.
  • Few natural resources:
  • No raw materials like oil, coal or metal ores = make less money = nothing to sell = less money to spend on development = can't develop. Have raw materials = no money to develop infrastructure to exploit them = slows down rate of development.
  • Poor location:
  • Landlocked (no coastline) countries = more expensive to transport goods = harder to make money = less to spend on development = harder to import = less development.
  • Natural hazards:
  • A natural process which could cause death, injury or disruption to humans or destroy property. A natural disaster is a natural hazard that has already happened. High frequency = spend money rebuilding instead of development = less development.
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What human factors affect development?

  • Conflict
  • Debt
  • Politics
  • Trade
  • Education
  • Tourism
  • Aid
  • Disease and healthcare
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How can conflict affect development?

  • Wars, especially civil wars, can slow or reduce levels of development. 
  • For example: health care becomes much worse and things like infant mortality increases a lot.
  • Money is spent on arms and fighting instead of development.People are killed.Damage is done to infrastructure.
  • Countries have to spend money repairing this damage when the fighting ends instead of improving infrastructure. Slows rate of development.
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How can debt affect development?

  • LIDCs often borrow money from other countries and international organisations e.g. to help them cope with the aftermath of a natural disaster.
  • This money has to be paid back, usually with interest, so any money the country makes can't be used to develop.
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How can politics affect development?

  • Corrupt governments can hinder development e.g. by taking money that's intended for building new infrastructure or improving facilities for people.
  • They might also prevent a fair election from happening so there is no chance for a democratically elected government to gain power.
  • If the government is unstable (i.e. likely to lose power at any time), companies and other countries are unlikely to invest or want to trade with them, meaning that the level of development stays low.
  • Governments need to invest in the right things to help a country develop like transport and schools. If they invest in the wrong areas, the country will not develop as quickly.
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How can trade affect development?

  • Trade = the exchange of goods and services. Countries can import - buy - or export - sell - them.
  • Trade surplus = countries that export products of greater value than they import.
  • Trade deficit = countries that import goods and services than they export, poorer.
  • World trade patterns affects a country's economy and so affects their level of development. 
  • If a country has poor trade links, it won't make a lot of money so there'll be less to spend on development.
  • What a country trades also affects its level of development - exporting primary products like wood and stone is less profitable than exporting manufactured goods like cars and phones.
  • Countries that mainly export primary products tend to be less developed.
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How can education affect development?

  • Educated people = skilled workforce = country produces more goods and offers more services = brings money into the country through trade and investment.
  • Educated people earn more = pay more taxes = provides money for development.
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How can tourism affect development?

  • Tourism = increased income = more money = increase level of development.
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How can aid affect development?

  • Help given by one country to another.
  • Can be spent on developing projects like building schools or improving water supplies = increase level of development.
  • However, if countries come to rely on aid, it might stop them from developing trade links that could be a better way of developing.
  • Also, relying on aid could lead to a spiral of decline.
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How can disease and healthcare affect development?

  • In some LIDCs, lack of clean water and poor health care means that a large number of people suffer from diseases such as malaria and cholera. 
  • Ill people can't work = not contributing to the economy.
  • They may also need expensive medicine or health care.
  • Lack of economic contribution = less money to spend on development.
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What does Rostow's Model predict?

  • It predicts how a country's level of development changes over time - it describes how a country's economy changes from relying mostly on primary industry - like agriculture - through secondary infrastructure - like manufacturing goods - to tertiary industry and quaternary industry - like services and research.
  • At the same time, people's standard of living improves.
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Describe Rostow's model.

  • Stage 1 is the lowest and stage 5 is the highest.
  • Stage 1 = Traditional Society - subsistence based. Farming, fishing and forestry. Little trade. For example: Ethiopia.
  • Stage 2 = Preconditions for take-off - manufacturing starts to develop. Infrastructure is built e.g. roads, power networks. International trading begins. For example: Philippines.
  • Stage 3 = Take-off - rapid, intensive growth. Large-scale industrialisation. Increasing wealth. For example: Thailand.
  • Stage 4 = Drive to maturity - economy grows so people get wealthier. Standards of living rise. Widespread use of technology. For example: China.
  • Stage 5 = Mass consumption - lots of trade. Goods are mass produced. People are wealthy, so there are high levels of consumption.
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What are the MDGs?

The Millenium Development Goals are aimed to help LIDCs develop, by improving life. They were targets set by the UN in 2002 - all UN member states agreed to try to achieve the goal by 2015. There are 8:

1) Halve the number of people living in extreme poverty or suffering from hunger.

2) Make sure that all children had a primary education.

3) Increase the number of girls and women in education and in paid employment.

4) Reduce death rates in children under 5 by 2/3.

5) Reduce death rates amongst women caused by pregnancy or childbirth by 3/4.

6) Stop the spread of major diseases, including HIV, AIDS and malaria.

7) Protect the environment and make sure development was sustainable, while improving quality of life.

8) Unite countries around the world to work together to help LIDCs to develop.

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What has happened after the MDGs?

  • By 2015, the UN had gone some way to achieving these goals, but success was variable in different parts of the world.
  • The UN has set a new series of Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs - to achieve by 2030.
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What is aid?

  • Giving help to people/countries.
  • Aid is given by one country to another, either as money or as resources. 
  • Money can be spent on development projects, e.g. building schools to improve literacy rates, making dams to provide clean water or providing farming education and equipment to improve agriculture.
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List the different types of aid.

  • Top-down
  • Bottom-up
  • Short-term
  • Long-term
  • Debt relief
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What is top-down aid, advantages and disadvantages

  • When an organisation or government recieves the aid and decides how it should be spent. 


  • Aid used for large projects or irrigation schemes can improve the lives of people and the economy, with long-term development.


  • They have to pay the money back, the projects can be expensive and may not even benefit everyone. 
  • If the governments are corrupt, they may use the money for their own purposes, not helping with development.
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What is bottom-up aid, advantages and disadvantage

  • Money is given directly to the local people, e.g. by building or maintaining a well. 


  • Local people have a say in how the money will be used so they can get what they need.
  • Projects often employ local people, so they earn money and learn new skills.


  • Projects may be small-scale so they won't benefit everyone.
  • Different organisations may not work together, so projects may be insufficient.
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What is short term aid, advantages and disadvantag

  • Aid sent to help countries cope with emergencies like natural disasters.


  • Give immediate relief, so the country recovers faster.
  • Money allocated for development doesn't have to be used to cope with the emergency instead.


  • Doesn't help with long term development which could restrict further development. 
  • Food aid may limit the price farmers can charge for their crops so their income is reduced.
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What is long term aid, advantages and disadvantage

  • Aid given over a long period to help countries develop.


  • Most projects aim to be sustainable.
  • Projects can improve life for lots of people in the long-term.
  • May help to build trade link between the donor and recipient countries.


  • May make the recipient country dependent on aid.
  • Aid is sometimes 'fled' - money has to be spent on goods and services from the donor country, which may be more expensive than other sources.
  • A country can become too dependent on their donor countries.
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What is debt relief aid, advantages and disadvanta

  • When a country doesn't have to pay back part or all of the money it has borrowed.


  • Frees up money that can be spent on development.
  • Donor countries can specify how the cancelled debt should be spent, e.g. health care or education.


  • Donor countries may be reluctant to cancel debts for countries with corrupt governments.
  • Imposing conditions can mean that the money isn't used when it's most needed.
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What is a limitation of the Rostow's model?

  • It is unreflective on the entire country.
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What are NGOs?

  • Non-governmental organisations.
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Difference between bilateral and multilateral aid?

  • Bilateral: there are 2 countries involved and it is from one government to another.
  • Multilateral: from one government through organisations/NGOs to another government. It may be tied/have conditions.
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Advantages of trade to LIDCs.

  • Jobs: It creates jobs and brings money to the country. This improves people's standard of living.
  • Development: Increases the amount of money a country has to spend on things like health care and education and on development projects such as transport infrastructure.
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Disadvantages of trade to LIDCs.

  • Unaffordable: Some LIDCs can't afford the technology to produce goods quickly and cheaply. This means they might not be able to match the prices of other countries.
  • Quality of life: Trade can have a negative effect on people. E.g. to keep prices low, wages and working conditions may be very poor. So increased trade won't necessarily improve quality of life for everyone. 
  • Little profit: LIDCs often export primary products such as grain or wood. These products don't create much profit, so they don't provide much money for development. They can also be unreliable, e.g. if crops fail because of drought.
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What are TNCs?

  • TNC = Trans-National Corporations that are located in or produce and sell products in more than one country. 
  • E.g. Sony is a TNC - it makes electronic products in China and Japan.
  • TNC factories are usually located in poorer countries because labour is cheaper and there are fewer environmental and labour regulations, which means that they can make more profit.
  • They can improve the development of countries they work in by transferring jobs, skills and money to less developed countries. 
  • TNC offices and headquaters are usually located in richer countries because there are more people with administrative skills because education is better.
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Advantages and disadvantages of TNCs?


  • Jobs: They create jobs in all the countries they're located in.
  • Reliable income: Employees in poorer countries get a more reliable income compared to jobs like farming.
  • Infrastructure: They spend money to improve the local infrastructure.


  • Less pay: Employees in poorer countries may be paid less than employees in richer countries.
  • Poor conditions: They may also have to work long hours in poorer conditions.
  • Little profit: Most TNCs come from richer countries so the profit goes back there - they aren't reinvested in the poorer countries that the TNCs operate in.
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  • The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a huge country in central Africa.
  • It is enarly landlocked - only has a tiny bit of coastline.
  • Has a population of about 79 million.
  • A high birth rate is causing the population to grow quite rapidly, so there are increasing numbers of people who need food, clean water, education etc.
  • The DRC has very rich natural resources, including copper, gold, oil and diamonds.
  • Its fertile soil and climate make it ideal for growing crops such as coffee, sugar and cotton.
  • The DRC also has rich deposits of minerals ores such as coltan and wolframite which are used in laptops, mobile phones can cameras.
  • The DRC has a low level of development according to the GNI per capita - $410 - the life expectancy - 59 years - the literacy rate - 61% - and the HDI - 0.43.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Political and social factors...

  • Political and social factors have hindered development.
  • The DRC was a Belgian colony from 1885 to 1960, 75 years. By 1960, the country was quite developed in some ways - industry was booming, and education and health care were improving.
  • However, most of the massive wealth created from mines and farms was passed back to other countries. Native people weren't allowed to vote, and were only allowed a very basic education.
  • The DRC gained independence from Belgium in 1960 and there was conflict over who would lead the country. 5 years later in 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko seized power. His rule prevented the DRC from developing.
  • 32 years later in 1997, Mobutu was overthrown and this lead to a civil war which lasted for 6 years until 2003.
  • Joseph Kabila, who became president in 2001, promised to focus on improing infrastructure, health, education, housing, jobs and access to resources such as water and power.
  • There have been signs of economic growth since 2012, but development still remains relatively slow.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Mobutu Sese Seko reign.

  • Corruption was very widespread - President Mobutu allowed armed forces to loot the country, taking goods and money. This lead to huge inequality in wealth - a small number of very rich people and a huge number of very poor people.
  • Large companies paid bribes to gain access to mineral resources. Much of the resulting wealth left the country, so it didn't benefit the local people.
  • Mobutu forced many foreign-owned businesses to leave the country, leading to loss of jobs and wealth. He refused to pay back debts to Belgium, who controlled development projects in the DRC.
  • There was conflict over leadership for most of his rule. This caused damage to crops, property and infrastructure, forced people to flee their homes and made it hard for them to access medical care.
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  • 'Conflict minerals' have also held back development.
  • Growing global demand for electronic products has increased demand for mineral ores such as coltan and wolframite. 
  • In parts of the DRC, armed groups force people to work in dangerous conditions to mine the mineral ores.
  • Fighting over ownership of the mines has caused the deaths of millions of people, causing these resources to become known as 'conflict minerals'.
  • Many companies are now buying minerals from other countries, where forced labour amd war aren't an issue.
  • This makes it difficult for the DRC to sell the resources it has, which is hindering economic development.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Environment.

Although the DRC is rich in resources, it's geography makes it hard for them to be exploited:

  • The country is so large that goods have to be transported thousands of miles.
  • The small amount of coastline limits ocean transport. Building roads and railways is difficult and expensive because much of the country is covered in forest and there are lots of rivers.
  • The Congo River, which runs east to west across the country, has the potential to provide hydroelectric power for large parts of Africa. However, the difficult terrain means that setting up infrastructure to transmit this electricity is very difficult.

Food production in some areas is difficult, causing malnutrition and poverty - the centre and south of the country show some improvement since 2000, but the DRC is still one of the least developed countries in the world.

The DRC experiences frequent floods - this can ruin crops, as well as destroying settlements and infrastructure that required money to rebuild. This hinders further development.

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CASE STUDY - DRC - MDGs and poverty and hunger.

1. Reduce poverty and hunger.

  • The % of people living in poverty decreased from 71% in 2005 to 63% in 2012. This is a 8% decrease in 7 years.
  • However, the number of people suffering from malnutrition increased from 51% in 2000 to 66% in 2015. This is a 15% increase in 15 years, at least 1% increase per year.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Education.

2. Provide education for all.

  • The % of children who completed primary school education increased from 35% in 1999 to 72% in 2013. 
  • This is a 37% increase in 14 years.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - MDGs and gender equality.

3. Promote gender equality.

  • The % of girls finishing primary school more than doubled, from 32% in 1999 to 65% in 2013, in 14 years.
  • However, the % of boys finishing primary school grew more over the same period, so inequality has increased.
  • There are fewer women than men in paid work, and on average, they earn less than men doing the same job.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Child death rate.

4. Reduce child death rates.

  • The death rate of children under 5 decreased from about 176 per thousand births in 2000 to about 120 pre thousand births in 2013.
  • More than 70% of children are now vaccinated against measles, showing a 50% rise from 1999 where it was 20%.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Maternal death rates.

5. Reduce maternal death rates.

  • The number of women dying in childbirth decreased from around 870 per 100,000 births in 2000 to around 690 per 100,000 births in 2015.
  • The availability of health care for mothers before and during childbirth has increased since 1990.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Spread of diseases.

6. Stop the spread of diseases.

  • The % of people with HIV/AIDS decreased from about 5% to about 1%, a 4% decrease, since 2000. This is partly due to better education and increased access to barrier methods such as contraception.
  • The proportion of people with malaria halved between 2000 and 2015, due partly to a huge increase in availability of mosquito nets.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Development.

7. Make development sustainable.

  • About 50% of the population have access to clean water - a small increase from 2000.
  • There are efforts to preserve the rainforests, e.g. the government has created protected areas and put bans on new logging operations.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - International links.

8. Promote international links.

  • In 2008, China gave the DRC $6 billion dollars to spend on infrastructure in return for acess to some of its mineral resources.
  • Other countries have invested in trade and offered aid.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Fit's into Rostow's model.

  • The DRC has an economy based on both primary goods (e.g. metal and mineral extraction, agriculture) and secondary goods (e.g. shoes and cement).
  • The DRC appears to be at Stage 2 of Rostow's model of development 'Preconditions for take-off'.
  • In Stage 2, a country starts to manufacture goods and has a surplus produce to trade. It develops infrastructure, e.g. transport networks.
  • Rostow's model suggests that Stage 3, 'Take-off', is the next step for the DRC, with rapid industrialisation and increasing wealth. This should trigger increased trade and investment, leading to further development.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Doesn't fit into Rostow's model

  • Transport infrastructure is very poor, with few paved roads and limited railways. This limits the country's potential for exports and trade, which will slow its development.
  • Only around 10% of people have access to electricity, and this value is much lower in rural areas. Power cuts are common. This makes it hard for industry to operate, which hinders development.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - Trade links.

  • Until recently, the DRC has had a trade deficit (import more than export).
  • More money was being sent to other countries than was being received from them, which weakened the DRC's economy.
  • The DRC now exports roughly as much as it imports (about $12.4 billion of goods each year).
  • The DRC mostly exports mostly primary products, including crude oil, minerals, wood and coffee. 
  • Minerals and metals, such as diamonds, gold and copper, account for about 90% of exports.
  • The DRC's main imports are manufactured goods, such as machinery, vehicles and electrical equipment. 
  • Until recently, many countries were reluctant to trade with DRC because of human rights violations, corruption and conflict. 
  • Since 1997, trade links have increased and the DRC now trades with a number of countries - its main trading partners are Belgium, China, Italy, France and Australia.
  • The DRC is also a member of several trade communities designed to increase free trade in Africa.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - + of trade.

  • Growth of economy: The economy of the DRC grew by 7% from 2010 to 2012, and this growth rate is expected to increase = increase wealth = improves standard of living = gives opportunities for investment in things like education and health care.
  • Encouragement: Establishing links with other countries make them more likely to invest in the DRC (e.g. by locating branches of TNCs there) or to offer aid which can be used for development.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - - of trade.

  • Falling prices:The DRC's reliance on trading primary goods makes it vulnerable to falling prices. In 2008 and 2009, global economic problems caused a sharp fall in the value of these products, which hindered economic growth in the DRC.
  • Increased prices: The DRC's reliance on importing manufactured goods makes it vulnerable to increased prices. These goods are generally more valuable than primary products, so the DRC has to pay a lot for them - this has also limited its economic development. 
  • Exploitation: Demand from richer countries for mineral ores such as coltan and wolframite led to uncontrolled expolitation of these resources. Their extraction often involved human rights abuses such as slavery, and helped to fund armed rebels in the DRC. There are now international efforts to make extraction and trade of these mineral ores safe, legal and profitable for the DRC.
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  • Few TNCs currently operate in the DRC, but their number is increasing - especially mining companies such as Anglo American (based in the UK and South Africa) and Banro (based in Canada).
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  • Employment: provides employment - Banro employs at least 1500 people in the DRC.
  • Taxes: brings money through this and spending on goods + services. Banro contributes almsot $120 million to the DRC economy each year through local spending.
  • Infrastructure: invests money in infrastructure which benefits the people.
  • Development projects: set up these in the DRC - In 2014, Banro finished building a marketplace in Luhwidja, to provide jobs for people and improve the local economy.
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  • Risk of pulling out: TNCs can pull out = takes jobs and wealth with them - in 2009, mining company De Beers announced that it would stop looking for new diamond reserves in the DRC.
  • Profits leave: profits from TNCs leae the DRC - some of Banro's profits return to Canada.
  • Forced to leave homes: some large mining companies have been accused of forcing small mines to close and people to leave their homes to make way for large mines.
  • Environmental problems: e.g. construction of roads to give access to mines causes deforestation.
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  • The DRC receives billions of dollars of aid every year.
  • The main donors include the USA, UK, Belgium and the World Bank.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - + of aid.

  • Improve conditions: aid funds projects to improve living conditions, health, education and infrastructure, e.g. the UK has funded the construction of 1700 km of new routes.
  • Food + shelter: emergency aid programmes have provided food and shelter for people who are affected by ongoing conflicts over land and resources.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - - of aid.

  • Doesn't directly benefit civilians: some early aid was in the form of weapons to arm government forces. This promotd fighting and didn't directly benefit civilians.
  • Tied aid: some aid has conditions, e.g. in 2008, China gave the DRC $9 billion, but insisted that it be used to develop mining and infrastructure - this may not benefit the poorest people.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - 'Top-down' aid, + and -.

Proposed constructon of Grand Inga Dam on Congo River, starting 2017. Cost = $80 billion. Donors: World Bank, African Development Bank and others.


  • Energy: could provide cheap, clean energy for all of the DRC, plus extra to sell.
  • Economy: will promote industry in the DRC, providing jobs and boosting the economy.


  • Corrupt: risk that money may be lost to corrupt officials/companies.
  • Poor communities: little provision for transmitting energy to poor, rural communities.
  • Flooding: flooding of the Bundi Valley and relocation of 30,000 people.
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CASE STUDY - DRC - 'Bottom-up' aid, + and -.

Involving teachers, students and parents in improving rural schools and increasing the number of children in education. Cost: £390,000. Donor: Comic Relief.


  • Have a say: local people will have a say in how their schools should be improved.
  • Educated people: better-educated people earn more, so contribute more to economic development.


  • Not enough funding: not enough funding to improve all schools, so not everyone benefits.
  • Unaffordable: some families need children to earn a living, can't afford to send them to school.
  • Large-scale: doesn't tackle large-scale issues.
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Population density in the UK.

Population density (the number of people living in a given area) varies:

  • Population density is highest in cities like London, Glasgow and Birmingham - in London, it's about 5500 people per square km.
  • Population density is also high in areas around major cities, where there are clusters of cities, e.g. the south-east, Midlans and central Scotland.
  • Mountainous regions such as northern Scotland and central Wales have low population densities.
  • Other areas of low population density are north England and west Wales. Edenin Cumbria has a population density of about 24 people per square km.
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Problems of high population density.

  • Lack of houses: There may be a shortage of available housing - e.g. in London, up to 60,000 new homes are needed every year to keep up with population growth. A shortage can drive up the price of houses, so some people can't afford to live there.
  • Pressure: There may be pressure on services such as health care and schools - there can be long waiting lists to see doctors, and children may have to attend a school a long way from home.
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UK average annual rainfall.

  • The north and west of the UK generally have high rainfall. E.g. Aultbea in northwest Scotland has an average annual rainfall of 1460 mm.
  • The south and east of the UK generally have lower ranfall. E.g. London has an average annual rainfall of 560 mm.
  • Rainfall tends to be higher in coastal areas than indland. 
  • Rainfall is also higher in areas of higher elevation - mountainous areas get more rainfall than low-lying areas.
  • The UK's relief helps to determine patterns of population density, rainfall and land use.
  • Areas with high population density use a lot of resources, e.g. water. If the area also has low rainfall, this can cause water stress - there isn't enough water to meet people's needs. London experiences severe water stress.
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Land use in the UK.

  • Most of the UK - 70% - is agricultural land. Arable farming (growing crops) is more common in the south and east of the country, and grazing animals is more common is more common in the north and west.
  • Less than 10% of the UK is built on - buildings are concentrated in large urban areas, especially in south-east England, the Midlands and central Scotland. These urban areas are expanding.
  • Forest covers about 13% of the land - some of this is natural and some has been planted and is managed by people. 
  • Some areas are not used as much by humans and have been left in a fairly natural state, e.g. mountainous or boggy areas in north Scotland.
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The UK's population is increasing...

  • In 2001, the population of the UK was about 59 million. By 2015, it was about 65 million.
  • Population has increase every year since 2001, but growth rate has slowed down since 2011.
  • The changing population structure of the UK is shown using population pyramids.
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When describing population pyramids, include....

  • Young dependent 0-14 years
  • Economically active 15-65 years
  • Elderly dependent 65+
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UK's population pyramid 2001-2015...

  • In 2001, the highest number of people were in the 30-39 age group. This is partially because of high birth rates in the 1960s = 'baby boom'.
  • By 2015, the highest number of people were in the 40-49 age group, as the 1960s 'baby boom' generation got older.
  • Between 2001 and 2015, the number of people aged 20-29 increased - this was partly due to the increasing numbers of young migrants.
  • The number of people aged 0-39 increased by about 3% and the number of people aged over 39 increased by about 18%. This shows that the UK's population is getting older.
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What is DTM?

  • Demographic Transition Model:
  • Shows how a country's population is likely to change as it develops, based on changing birth and death rates.
  • At stage 1, birth and death rates are high and the population is low. As a country develops, health care improves, so death rate falls and population grows.
  • Over time, better education and increased access to contraception means that birth rate falls, so population growth begins to slow down.
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Describe Stage 1 of the DTM.

  • Birth rate = high and fluctuating.
  • Death rate = high and fluctuating.
  • Population growth rate = 0
  • When was the UK at this stage? Before 1760.
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Describe stage 2 of the DTM.

  • Birth rate = high and steady.
  • Death rate = rapidly falling.
  • Population growth rate = very high.
  • Population size = rapidy increasing.
  • When was the UK at this stage? 1760-1870.
  • Natural population increase occurs here.
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Describe stage 3 of the DTM.

  • Birth rate = rapidly falling.
  • Death rate = slowly falling.
  • Population growth rate = high.
  • Population size = increasing.
  • When was the UK at this stage? 1870 to 1950.
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Describe stage 4 of the DTM.

  • Birth rate = low and fluctuating.
  • Death rate = low and fluctuating.
  • Population growth rate = 0
  • Population size = high and steady.
  • When was the UK at this stage? 1950-present.
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Describe stage 5 of the DTM.

  • Birth rate = slowly falling.
  • Death rate = low and steady.
  • Population growth rate = negative.
  • Population size = slowly falling.
  • The UK hasn't reached stage 5 - when death rate is higher than birth rate, and the population starts to decrease.
  • Natural population decrease occurs here.
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The UK and the DTM.

In the UK:

  • Birth rate and death rate have fallen over the past 300 years - it has been through stages 1-3 of the DTM.
  • Birth rate is now 12 births per thousand people and death rate is 9 births per thousand people. These are both still quite low, but population is still growing slowly - this shows that the UK is at stage 4 of the DTM.
  • But the DTM doesn't account for migration.
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The UK and migration.

  • Roughly half the UK's population growth is driven by natural increase (more births than deaths), and half by migration.
  • In 2015, over 600,000 people moved to the UK, mostly from China, Australia, India and Poland. About 300,000 people moved overseas, mostly to Australia, France and China. 
  • The number of people moving to the UK has been greater than the number of people leaving every year since 2001.
  • Net migration to the UK has increased from 2001 to 2004, stayed fairly constant from 2004-2010, decreased to 2012 and then increased sharply.
  • The majority of migrants move to London and the south-east - population growth is higher there than elsewhere in the UK.
  • Migration affects the UK's position on the DTM by increasing the birth rate, because many migrants are of child-bearing age. Immigrants make up about 13% of the UK population, but account for about 27% of babies born.
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London has a young, ethnically diverse population.

  • In 2001, the population of London was about 7.2 million. By 2015, 14 years later, it has increased by 1.3 million to a total of 8.5 million. This is faster growth than anywhere else in the UK.
  • Growth was higher amongst groups of working age (20-69) than those under 20 or over 69 - lots of people move to London from elsewhere in the UK or from overseas for work. The highest population growth was in the 40-49 age bracket, which increased by almost 30%.
  • The % of men in all age groups increased more than the % of women between 2001 and 2013, although the total number of women remained slightly higher.
  • Just like the rest of the UK, population growth in London is driven by natural increase and migration. People who migrate to London from other countries increase the city's ethnic diversity:
  • Across the UK as a whole, about 13% of the population was born in another country. In London, this value is 37%
  • Ethnic diversity in London has increased between 2001 and the present - in 2001, 60% of the population were white British, but by 2011 this had fallen to 45%.
  • The change was driven by an increase in the % of white non-British people (particularly Poland and Romania), as well as Black African and Asian people.
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The UK has an ageing population.

In the UK, around 18% of the population are over 65. The proportion of older people is increasing because:

  • Birth rates are low because couples are having fewer children - in the UK, the average number of children per family decreased from 2.9 in 1964 (the peak of the 1960s 'baby boom') to 1.8 in 2014. Also, more women are choosing not to have children than in the past.
  • People are living longer due to better medical care and a healthier lifestyle (e.g. not smoking). Life expectancy in the UK increased from 72 years in 1964 to 81 years in 2015.
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The number of older people varies around the UK.

  • The proportion of older people isn't the same everywhere in the UK.
  • It's lower in Northern Ireland and Scotland than in England and Wales.
  • It's generally lower in big cities such as London, Bristol and Manchester - people often live in cities to be closer to their jobs, so a higher proportion of the population is of working age.
  • The % of older people is high in coastal areas, especially in east and south-west England, because lots of eople moe there when they retire.
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Social and economic effects of ageing population.


  • Pressure: healthcare services are under pressure = demand for medical care has increased.
  • Stress: some people act as unpaid carers for older family members in their free time, so they have less leisure time and are more stressed.
  • Unaffordable: people may not be able to afford to have lots of children when they have dependent older relatives. This may lead to a further drop in birth rate.
  • Voluntary work: many retired people do voluntary work, which benefits the community.


  • Rising taxes: taxes for working people rise to pay for healthcare and services such as pensions and retirement homes.
  • Less tax: older people who aren't working pay less tax, so their economic contribution decreases.
  • Look after grandchildren: some older people do this, so their children can work.
  • Disposable incomes: many older people have disposable income, which they spend on goods and services that boost the economy.
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Different responses to the UK's ageing population.

  • As the number of older people increases, the government may need to increase taxes or out spending in other areas (e.g. education or defense) to fund more support and medical care.
  • The government is raising the age at which people can claim a pension - people stay in work longer, so they contribute to taxes and pensions for longer.
  • The government is encouraging people to save more money to help pay for their retirement. For example, in 2015 the government launched saving accounts for over-65s, known as 'pensioner bonds' - these offer a higher rate of interest than many savings accounts, so older people can save more.
  • The UK government currently offers a winter fuel allowance to all older people. In future, this may only be given to older people who can't afford to heat their homes, meaning less money is spent overall.
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Changes to the UK economy.

  • Between 1997 and 2007, the UK economy grew strongly and unemployment decreased. This was partly because of the government's priorities:
  • Encouraging investment in new technologies and investing in university education, leading to a more skilled workforce.
  • However, in early 2008, the UK entered a recession. Businesses failed, GDP decreased and umemployment increased. The government had to change their priorities to end the recession:
  • Supporting businesses so they didn't collapse - their collapse would increase unemployment, decreasing taxes on goods to encourage spending and international trade and borrowing money from e.g. private companies and overseas investors.
  • The recession ended in late 2009. The government had to focus on paying off money borrowed during the recession and helping people find jobs:
  • Cutting spending on public services such as pensions, education and defense to raise money and providing training for job-seekers and support for new businesses to decrease unemployment.
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How have the UK's employment sectors changed?

  • Since 2001, jobs in quaternary industries (e.g. education and research, ICT) have increased most, while jobs in secondary industries (e.g. manufacturing) have decreased.
  • Over the same period, the number of people employed in primary production (e.g. farming and mining) and tertiary industries (e.g. retail) stayed fairly steady.
  • The biggest increases have been in professional and technical jobs (e.g. law, computing, research and development).
  • Employment in manufacturing decreased most, partly due to cheaper materials and labour being available overseas.
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How has working hours decreased since 2001?

  • Overall, working hours are decreasing - the average number of hours worked in a week was 34.7 in 2001 and 33.1 in 2014. The number of hours worked decreased slightly for men than for women over this time.
  • There has been an increase in people doing part time jobs and zero-hours contracts (where the employee isn't guaranteed any hours of work).
  • However, the number of families with parents both in full-time work has increased since 2003, when the government increased financial support for low-income working parents.
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What is an economic hub?

  • Places where economic activity is concentrated - e.g. they often have lots of businesses. 
  • They have economic influence beyond the hub itself, for example companies located in the hub may trade with companies in other countries.
  • A city or region that is considered to be a focal point for the financial services industry
  • Economic hubs occur at a range of scales e.g. they can be an entire region, a town or city or a single street within the city. For example:
  • Region - South Wales is home to lots of new digital and media companies, which are rapidly increasing their takings and staff numbers. This is helping to boost the economy of Wales and the UK as a whole.
  • City - London is an economic hub for the UK, and has a global economic influence, e.g. through trade and financial markets. The headquarters of many banks and other businesses (both UK-based and global) are located there, and the city creates 22% of the UK's GDP.
  • Part of city - Electric Works, a large office building in central Sheffield, is home to many digital, creative and media companies.
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Where are the UK's core economic hubs?

  • Many of the main economic hubs in the UK have a high concentration of tertiary and quaternary industries.
  • These are often based in cities or in science or business parks on the outskirts of cities where there are good transport links and links with universities.
  • Economic hubs are concentrated in the south-east of England - cities like London, Brighton and Cambridge are experiencing rapid growth in new businesses and jobs than cities elsewhere in the UK. 
  • However, the UK government is encouraging investment outside of the south-east, and many companies are setting up sites in other areas.
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Give examples of some economic hubs and industries

  • Glasgow - renewable energy production and new technologies for use in building and medicine.
  • Belfast - financial services and international trade.
  • Salford - media, including BBC and ITV. Manufacturing of chemicals and scientific instruments.
  • Brimingham City Centre - finance, digital and ICT.
  • South Wales - digital and media companies.
  • Bristol Temple Quarter - creative and digital industries, services such as law and finance.
  • Inverness Campus - new business and science park just outside city.
  • Aberdeen - oil and gas extraction.
  • Newcastle - science, technology and computer games development.
  • Sheffield - digital, creative and medica companies, plus manufacture of e.g. steel products.
  • Cambridge Science Park - research and development.
  • Oxfordshire - various hubs of science, manufacturing and engineering.
  • City of London - trade and financial markets.
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South Wales is an economic hub.

  • Wales is less wealthy than the UK as a whole. However, South Wales is much richer than other parts of Wales - e.g. GDP per capita in Cardiff is £22,000 compared to £15,500 in Wales as a whole.
  • The difference in wealth between South Wales and the rest of Wales is caused by the large number of companies that have located in the south, and the high number of visitors the area attracts.
  • Most companies are based in the cities, creating inequalities in wealth between the cities and surrounding areas. However, growth has a positive effect on the whole region by creating jobs, attracting visitors and prompting further development, e.g. out-of-town shopping centres.
  • Through business investment, employment and exports, South Wales contributes significantly to the economy of Wales and the UK as a whole.
  • Economic growth in South Wales has had environmental impacts on the region. For example, various manufacturing industries have been built on wetlands at Wentloog in south Newport, damaging natural habitats.
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The industries of South Wales' economic hubs.

  • Manufacturing: e.g. Ford cars have a production plant in Bridgend that employs about 2000 people.
  • Services: e.g. insurance providers Admiral hae their headquarters in Cardiff, as well as offices in Newport and Swansea, and employ over 5000 people in South Wales.
  • Digital: digital companies in South Wales grew by 87% between 2010 and 2013 - much faster than in the UK as a whole. TechHub is Swansea was set up in 2016 to provide office spae, networking opportunities and advice for digital companies.
  • Media:over 50,000 people are employed in media and creative industries in Wales as a whole, with the highest concentration in South Wales. The head office of BBC Cymru Wales is in Cardiff, and programmes made there such as Doctor Who and Casualty, are exported worldwide.
  • Tourism600,000 people visit Cardiff each year, contributing to £130 million to the local economy.
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How has the economy of South Wales changed over ti

  • South Wales first became and economic hub in the 18th century. For much of the 18th and 19th centuries, its economy was based on coal mining and ironmaking. Canals and rail networks were built to transport coal and iron to the docks in Cardiff, Swansea and Newport to be exported. Lots of people moved to the cities of South Wales for work = area became wealthy.
  • In the 20th century, coal mining and ironworking in South Wales declined due to overseas competition. Unemployment levels were high, and many people lived in poverty.
  • In the 1990s, the different parts of the region started to work together more to achieve economic growth. They aimed to improve transport networks, attract businesses, increase skills and draw visitors to the area. The EU gave millions of pounds of funding to help South Wales to deelop, e.g. nearly £4 million to construct the National Waterfront Museum in Swansea and nearly £80 million to improve the A465 between Hereford and Swansea and improve the accessibility of South Wales.
  • This has helped to attract private investigators, including lots of high-tech companies, to the region, making it the economic hub it is now. These industries are likely to expand in future, driving further economic growth.
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UK is a member of...

Lots of international organisations have been set up to try and avoid conflict, and to ensure that member countries work together to help resolve conflict elsewhere. The UK is a member of:

  • NATO - the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation - is a group of 28 countries, including the USA and many European countries who work together to ensure their own security. They aim to prevent conflict by promoting cooperation and to resolve conflicts by political means (e.g. overseeing negotiations) and military means (as a last resort).
  • UN - the United Nations - made up of 193 member states. It was founded in 1945, at the end of WWII, to maintain peace. The UN tries to solve issues that can't be dealt with by individual countries, e.g. helping countries develop sustainably and delivering aid during crises.
  • G7 - the Group of Seven - has members - the US, Canda, France, the UK, Japan, Germany and Italy. Members meet once a year to discuss relevant issues, including economic policies, conflict, energy supply and security, and come to agreements about how best to approach them.
  • The UK was a part of the EU, set up after WWII in order to prevent further conflict in Europe, until they voted to leave in 2016.
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The UK and Ukraine.

  • Ukraine is a country in eastern Europe - it is bordered by Russia to the north and east. Ukraine was governed by Russia until 1991.
  • In 2013, backed by Russia, the Ukraine government decided not to form trade links with the EU, but to strengthen their ties with Russia instead.
  • This was unpopular with many Ukranians, who wanted to build a closer relationship with western Europe, and there were protests and gun violence. 
  • By 2014, the Russian president, Vladimir Putin, took control of Crimea (part of Ukraine) and moved large numbers of Russian troops to the Russian-Ukraine border. 
  • There has been fighting between the Ukranian army and pro-Russian Ukraine border.
  • International organisations in which the UK plays a part have reacted in various ways to the crisis.
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UK and Ukraine - international organisations.

  • NATO - trying to settle the conflict by encouraging negotiations between the two sides. In 2015, they created a rapid-response force of around 5000 soldiers stationed in surrrounding countries to deter future attempts by Russia to gain territory. The rapid-response force will be led by different countries in rotation - the UK will lead it in 2017, as well as supplying troops and RAF jets.
  • UN - is also trying to end the fighting in Ukraine and preserve Ukraine's borders. They are supporting peace talks between Ukranian and Russian leaders, and providing aid to people forced to leave their homes because of fighting. In 2015, the UK gave £15 million in aid to Ukraine, as well as military support and training for the Ukraine army.
  • G7 - used to be G8 - the other countries forced Russia out in 2014, after its seizure of Crimea. The UK, along with the other G7 countries, has imposed sanctions on Russia - e.g. restricting the money that Russian banks can borrow and limiting trade with Russia. By threatening the Russian economy, they hope to make Russia agree to a ceasefire and the removal of troops from Ukraine's borders.
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What does the UK export a lot of?

  • Media products are things like films, TV and radio shows, music and books.
  • The UK produces lots of media and exports it all over the world. This makes a big contribution to the UK's economy - in 2012, media industries employed nearly 1.7 million people and exported over £17 billion of products worldwide. Some examples of media products exported:
  • TV drama series - e.g. 'Downton Abbey' is watched by around 120 million people in more than 100 countries including the USA and China.
  • TV reality shows - e.g. 'The X Factor UK' is watched by more than 360 million people in 147 territories, and 51 countries have produced their own national version.
  • Films - UK films are distributed all over the world, but are most popular in New Zealand, Australia and Europe. For example, 'The King's Speech' took over $400 million at the box office, of which two-thirds was outside the UK.
  • Music - UK artists account for nearly 14% of global album sales each year. Adele, Ed Sheeran and One Direction were three of the biggest-selling artists in the world in 2015.
  • Books - e.g. the 'Harry Potter' series by J.K. Rowling has been translated into 68 languages and has sold more than 400 million copies in more than 200 territories.
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Influence of UK's media exports.

  • Most exported UK media are in English, so people in other countries develop a better understanding of the English language. However, the accents and phrases they learn may not be representative of the UK as a whole.
  • The different lifestyles, values and beliefs of the UK residents become more widely known and understood. However, this can be misleading - e.g. most people in the UK don't hae servants or live in a house like Downton Abbey.
  • Media exports affect the way the UK is perceived in other countries - e.g. in some films and TV shows, it is portrayed in an ugly, industrial country while in others, it is shown as scenic and rural.
  • Seeing the UK portrayed positively in different media makes people want to come here - either to work, to study or just to visit. For example, tourism in the UK increased after the 2012 Olympic Games in London, which was broadcast on TV around the world.
  • Exports of similar media exports may increase, strengthening the UK's economic influence.
  • UK media exports can inspire people or companies in other countries to create or develop  new media products - e.g. the quiz show 'The Weakest Link' started in the UK but the format was bought by more than 40 other countries, including the USA, Australia and France.
  • Some people copy clothes/hairstyles of celebrities they like, so British celebs have an impact.
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Ethnic groups and the UK.

  • The UK is a multicultural country - for centuries, people have moved from all over the world. 
  • High proportions of ethnic minorities come from India, Pakistan and Africa.
  • People moving to the UK bring their own culture, which they can share - e.g. by setting up businesses such as shops and restaurants or building religious centres.
  • People from the same ethnic background often settle in the same area of a city, and creating a distinctive character in that area - because of e.g. the architecture and types of businesses that people create there.
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Ethnic groups influencing food in the UK.

  • Food that originates in other countries has become a staple for many Brits, e.g. curry and pizza.
  • Restaurants producing authentic ethnic food are popular with people of that ethnic background, and of many other ethnic backgrounds, including white British people.
  • Different national dishes need different ingredients, so shops specialising in those ingredients often open in areas with a high number of people from a particular ethnic background, e.g. London Road in Sheffield has a large Asian community, and lots of shops selling Indian and Chinese produce.
  • In recent years, mainstream supermarkets have increased the amount of ethnic food that they sell - many large supermarkets have a 'world food' aisle, and even small supermarkets offer ready-made curry paste, noodles and other ingredients for ethnic dishes.
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Ethnic groups influencing media in the UK.

People from different ethnic minorities have made the media scene in the UK more diverse. This has helped different groups to undersyand and empathise with each other. For example:

  • People from ethnic minorities have written, acted in and produced a number of successful TV shows, shuch as 'The Kumars' and 'Youngsters'.
  • Music styles including soul, reggae and dubstep all have roots in Black African and Caribbean music. They have been extremely influential in shaping music in the UK.
  • Authors from other cultures write books exploring their heritage or experiences in the UK. e.g. 'Yoruba Girl Dancing' by Nigerian writer Simi Bedford. 
  • There have been numerous crossovers between traditional British culture and ethnic culture - e.g. several Shakespeare plays, including 'Hamlet', have even been performed as Bollywood musicals.
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Ethnic groups influencing fashion in the UK.

  • As with food, in areas with a high population of people from an ethnic minority background, shops selling traditional clothes for those countries are likely to open. E.g. Stratford Road in Birmingham has a lot of shops selling saris and other traditional Indian clothes.
  • As these clothes become more common, people from other cultures start to wear them. Asian and middle-eastern fashion has become popular in the UK, e.g. harem trousers and kaftans.
  • Fashion houses and high-street shops start to sell their own versions of these clothes, often combining traditional and UK styles - e.g. Indonesian-style batik prints on strapless tops.
  • Hair styles are also influenced by other cultures - e.g. dreadlocks were popularised by Jamaican people, anda re now worn by lots of white British people.
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What resources are needed for basic human developm

  • Food - without enough nutritious food, people can become malnourished. This makes them more likely to get ill, and may stop them form working or doing well at school.
  • Energy - a good supply of energy is needed for a basic standard of living, e.g. to provide lighting or heat for cooking. It's also essential for industry and transport.
  • Water - people need a constant supply of clean, safe water for drinking, cooking and washing. Water is also needed to produce food, clothes and lots of other products.
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Rising population and increased demand for resourc

  • The global population is increasing - in 2011 it was just over 7 billion and it's expected to reach 9 billion by 2040. More people require more resources.
  • Increased demand for one resource an increase demand for another - e.g. more people means that more food needs to be grown, which increases demand for water.
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Economic development and increased for energy reso

Economic development: people are getting wealther, especially in EDCs,

Wealthier people have more disposable incomes (income remaining after deduction of taxes and social security charges, available to be spent or saved as one wishes), which affects their resource consumption:

  • They have more money to spend on food and they often buy more than they need.
  • They can afford cars, fridges, TVs etc., all of which uses energy. Manufacturing these goods and producing energy to run them also uses a lot of water. More people can afford flushing toilets, showers, dishwashers, etc. This increases water use.
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Factors that limit supplies of food, water + energ

  • Climate: low rainfall = limited water supplies, grow little food. Rainfall patterns affected = water availability affected, crop growth affected.
  • Geology: no fossil fuel reserves, e.g. coal and oil + no suitable landscape to generate electricity, e.g. wind or hydropower. Limits water supply - when rain falls on permeable rocks like sandstone = flows into rock = forms underground water stores = hard to get to.
  • Conflict: war = disrupt transport of resources = e.g.damaging roads, water pipes or power lines.
  • Povery: can't afford technology = e.g. agricultural machinery, nuclear power plants = can't exploit available natural resources.
  • Natural Hazards: tropical storms, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions = damage agricultural land + destroy infrastructure = e.g. water pipes + power lines.
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Farming is becoming more mechanised...

  • Since the 1960s = growth in large-scale, industrial farming = process done by machines = e.g. tractors and combine harvesters = instead of people.
  • Industrial farming = increase amount of food that can be produced = processes such as milking, ploughing + harvesting can be done more quickly. 
  • However, changes to farms have impacts on ecosystems + environment:
  • Field sizes - have increased = food can be produced more cheaply, removal of hedgerows = a decline in biodiversity.
  • Chemicals used in food production increasing: large quantities of artificial fertilisers + pesticides are applied to crops, animals are given special feed = encourage growth. Enter water courses: chemicals harm/kill organisms.
  • Increased use of heavy machinery: e.g. in planting and harvesting = can cause soil erosion.
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Commercial fishing methods increase fish catches..

  • Global demand for fish = increasing. Most fish + seafood provided by commercial fishing methods = trawling (towing huge nets behind boats) + dredging (dragging a large metal frame along seabed to harvest shellfish such as oysters and scallops).
  • Since 1950s = fishing is more mechanised = boats can carry bigger nets + haul bigger catches than before = helps meet demand for fish.
  • Fish farms (aquaculture) = breed fish + shellfish in contained spaces.
  • Commerical fishing is having a number of impacts on ecosystems and the environment:
  • Over-fishing: endangered species. Knock-on impacts: decreasing the number of one species in an ecosystem can have this effect on other species.
  • Dredging: damage seafloor habitats + disturb organisms such as sea urchins and starfish.
  • Overcrowded fish farms: large number of fish produce waste = waste released into natural environment = can cause large bloms of algae = absorbs a lot of oxygen = causes other plants + animals to die.
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Demand for energy is increasing deforestation...

  • Deforestation: removal of trees from forests. Increasing energy demand = increases deforestation - trees are burnt as fuel is cleared = make way for power stations.
  • Some countries where a river flows through = e.g. the Amazon river in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil = forests are being destroyed = make way for HEP - Hyrdoelectric power stations = provides renewable energy = help meet increasing demands for energy needs. 
  • However, intital construction of HEP stations = build a dam = floods large areas of forest.
  • Deforestation has many environmental impacts:
  • Global warming: trees remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere, burning vegetation to clear forests releases carbon dioxide, deforestation = more carbon dioxide in the atmopshere.
  • Species may lose habitats: forests provide an important habitat = around 70% of all land-based plants and animal species live in forests, deforestation = habitats are lost = species may die out.
  • Increased likelihood of flooding: trees = intercept rainfall, deforestation = flooding = damage habitats.
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Mining has environmental impacts.

  • Fossil fuels = major source of energy = removed from ground by mining.
  • Surface mining = where large areas of vegetation, soil and rock are stripped away so that miners can reach the minerals they want. Sub-surface mining = involves digging deep shafts below the ground surface.
  • Fracking = developed to extract shale gas - natural gas that is trapped undergrund in shale rock = liquid is pumped into rock at high pressure = rock cracks (fractures) = releases gas = collected as it comes out of the production wall.
  • Mining has lots of impacts on the environment and ecosystems: 
  • Toxic pollutants: waste from mines can pollute soil, groundwater, drinking water and air. Pollutants include mercury + lead = toxic to plants, animals and people.
  • Loss of biodiversity: habitats are destroyed = makes way for mines = loss of biodiversity.
  • Limited resource: mining uses a lot of water.
  • Unsustainable and non-renewable energy sources: coal, oil and gas - fossil fuels - are not sustainable and non-renewable energy sources = release carbon dioxide when they are burnt = global warming.
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Reservoirs can provide a reliable water supply.

  • Seasonal variations in rainfall/unpredictable rainfall = water shortages at certain times of year. 
  • Can cope with problem = increase storage.
  • Reservoirs are formed by building a dam across a river = traps large amount of water behind the dam. Provides reliable source of water all year.
  • However, dams and reservoirs have environmental impacts:
  • Destroys habitats + agricultural land: reservoirs flood large amounts of land.
  • Impact ecosystems: water is often released through dam at regular intervals = river flows more uniform = reduces species diversity. Dams also act as barrier to species' movement = e.g. salmon that migrate upstream to lay their eggs.
  • Reducing fertility of areas downstream: natural flow of sediment downstream is distrupted, reducing fertility of areas down stream.
  • New aquatic environments: reservoirs create these, which can become home to non-native species.
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Water transfer moves water to needed places...

  • Water is often not where it's mostly needed. E.g. the south + east of the UK is much drier than the north + west = has a higher population density = not always enough water to go around.
  • Water transfers used canals and pipes = move water from a river that has surplus water to a river that was water shortage. Surplus -> shortage.
  • This can cause problems for ecosystems and the environment:
  • Damage ecosystems: large-scale engineering works are needed to create new channels.
  • Pressure on local ecosystems: may be water shortages in area where water is coming from, particularly in dry areas.
  • Adds to climate change: lots of energy is needed to pump the water over long distances if there isn't a natural downhill route = can release greenhouse gases.
  • Water transfer schemes often involve building dams and reservoirs.
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List of human use of the environment...

  • (Mechanised) Farming
  • Commerical fishing
  • Deforestation
  • Mining
  • Reservoirs
  • Water transfer
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Define food security.

  • When people have access to enough nutritious food to stay healthy and active.
  • Countries that produce a lot of food or are rich enough to import the food they need have food security.
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Define food insecurity.

  • When people aren't able to get enough food to stay healthy or lead an active life. 
  • Countries that don't grow enough food to feed their population and can't afford to import the food they need have food insecurity.
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Physical factors that affect food security.

  • Climate - countries with climates that are too cold or have too little rainfall can't grow much food. Extreme weather events (e.g. floods and droughts) also affect food supply.
  • Water stress - crops and live stock need water to survive. Areas + low rainfall/where irrigation is scarce = struggle to grow enough food.
  • Pests + diseases - pests = reduction in yields = consume crops, e.g.rats cause big problems by eating stored grain + huge locust swarms eat all of vegetation in their path. Diseases affect most crops + livestock + can cause a lot of damage if they spread through crops and herds, e.g. 37% of the world's wheat crops are under threat from a disease called wheat rust.
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Human factors that affect food security.

  • Poverty: people living in poverty = can't afford to buy food + don't have land to grow food. Affects people's ability to farm land effectiely, e.g. they may not be able to buy the fertilisers or pesticides. At a global scale, poverty = countries which can't grow enough can't afford to import food from countries with a surplus.
  • Technology: mechanisation of farm equipment = increases the amount of food that can be grown = efficient process. New technologies can protect plants from diseases + increase yield.
  • Conflict: fighting may damage agricultural land/make it unsafe = difficult to grow food. Access to food = difficult for people forced to flee. Difficult to import food = trade routes are disrupted + political relationships with countries may break down.
  • Over-farming: grazing too much livestock = decrease vegetation cover + cause soil erosion. Intensive arable farming = use up soil nutrients + make land infertile = land can no longer be used to produce food, needs time to recover.
  • Food prices: prices of certain foods change depending on supply and demand. If price of basics such as corn and rice increase too much, poorer people can't afford them and go hungry. 
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Access to food varies around the world.

  • A country's access to food depends on how much it can grow and how much it can afford to import. Generally, richer countries have better access to food - if they can't grow it themselves, they can buy it. There are several ways of showing ow access to food varies globally:
  • a) The daily calorie intake of people in different countries shows the amount that people eat.
  • b) The Global Hunger Index shows how many people are suffering from hunger or illness caused by lack of food. The index gives a value for each country 0 (no hunger) to 100 (extreme hunger). Countries are divided into categories depending on the severity of the problem. Doesn't calculate values for ACs.
  • Both measures show a similar pattern:
  • More developed areas like Europe + North America eat a lot.
  • Less developed countries like Africa, Central America and parts of Asia consume less food per person, and more people suffer from hunger and hunger-related illnesses.
  • EDCs are eating more and hunger is decreasing as wealth increases, e.g. China/
  • However, neither method shows up variations within countries - even in a country with a high calorie intake and a low score on the GHI, some people may have limited access to food.
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Malthus and Boserup's theory about food supply.

Malthus' theory:

  • An 18th-century economist, thought that population would increase faster than food supply. This would mean that eventually, there would be too many people for the food available.
  • He believed that, when this happened, people would be killed by catastrophes such as famine, illness and war, and the population would return to a level that could be supported by the food available.

Boserup's theory:

  • 20th-century economist: however big the world's population grew, people would always produce sufficient food to meet their needs.
  • She thought that, if food supplies become limited, people would come up with new ways to increase production (e.g. by making technological advances) in order to avoid hunger.

Neither theory has been proved completely right or wrong. There hae been famines in some areas, but on a gobal scale, food production has so far kept up with population growth.

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Environmental, economic and social sustainability.

  • Environmental sustainability: keeping the environment in a healthy state in the long-term.
  • Economic sustainability: making sure the wealth of individuals and countries continue to grow.
  • Social sustainability: maintaining a high quality of life for everyone indefinitely.
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List some ways to increase food security.

  • Organic farming
  • Intensive farming
  • Genetic modification
  • Hydroponics
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Organic farming.

  • Organic farming uses natural processes to return nutrients to the soil, so that soil stays fertile and food can continue to be produced. E.g. natural products are used instead of artificial chemicals (e.g. cow manure is used instead of artificial fertilisers), and animals aren't given enough vaccinations.
  • Limiting artificial chemical use helps to protect natural ecosystems and preserve biodiversity - this makes organic farming more environmentally sustainable than conventioanl farming.
  • However, organic food is more expensive than non-organic food, so not everyone can afford it - this limits its social sustainability.
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Intensive farming.

  • Intensive farming aims to produce as much food as possible in as small a space as possible. Farmers often use large quantities of fertilisers and pesticides to maximise crop yields. They may also keep animals inside small spaces and give them food with added antibioticcs and growth hormones to prevent disease and encourage growth.
  • Artificial chemicals (e.g. fertilisers, pesticides and antibiotics) can make their way into natural ecosystems and disrupt their balance - i.e. harming some species and favouring others. This reduces the environmental sustainability of intensive farming.
  • These chemicals are expensive and have to be applied year after year to maintain crop yields - this increases the cost of food, so it becomes less economically sustainable.
  • Mechanisation is also an example of intensification of farming.
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Genetic modification.

  • Genetically modified (GM) crops allow more food to be grown in smaller areas with fewer resources. For e.g. GM crops can be designed to have higher yields, resistance to drought, disease or pests (increasing yields and reducing the need for pesticides) or a higher nutritional value.
  • Increasing yields and growing more nutritious food increases food security, which makes GM crops more socially sustainable. Decreased use of artificial chemicals means that the cost of food production decreases, so GM crops may be economically sustainable for poorer farmers.
  • However, there are environmental concerns that reduces the environmental sustainability:
  • They may reduce biodiversity because fewer variety of crops are planted.
  • GM plants may interbreed with wild plants and pass on their genes or disrupt ecosystems.
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  • Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil - plants are grown in nutrient solution, and are monitored to make sure they get the right amount of nutrients. This maximises crop yield.
  • Less water is required than for plants grown in soils, and reduced risk of disease and pests means less need for pesticides. This increases their environmental sustainability.
  • However, hydroponics is very expensive, so it is currently only used for high-value crops. Not everyone can afford to by these crops, which makes them less socially sustainable.
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What is ethical consumerism?

  • Choosing to buy goods that have been produced with minimal harm to people and the environment. It's also about how we use goods - e.g. whether we throw lots of foodaway.
  • Ethical consumerism can help to increase food security and sustainability by:
  • reducing damage to agricultural land caused by food production, so land remains fertile.
  • making food production profitable, so farmers can afford to carry on producing it.
  • paying more money to poorer countries for goods, so poverty decreases.
  • reducing the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by transport and waste disposal. This may help to limit climate change and therefore prevent decreases in food production.
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Ways of making food consumption more ethical.

  • Buying fair trade products.
  • Reducing waste.
  • Buy local and seasonal food.
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Buying fair trade products.

  • Companies who want to sell products labelled as 'fair trade' have to pay farmers a fair price. This helps farmers in poorer countries make enough to improve their quality of life.
  • Food produced under fair trade schemes is ethical and sustainable because:
  • buys pay extra on top of the fair price to help develop the area where the goods come from, e.g. to build schools or health centres. This makes buying ffair trade products more socially sustainable.
  • only producers that treat their employees well can take part in the scheme, e.g. all employees must have a safe working environment, this improves the workers' 'quality of life'.
  • There are rusles about how fair trade food is grown - farmers must use environmentally friendly methods that e.g. protect biodiversity, limit greenhouse gas emissions and preserve soil health.
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Reduce waste.

  • Globally, 1/3 of food that is produced is wasted - reducing this will make food more available, so less needs to be grown to feed people. This will increase environmental and social sustainability.
  • Schemes such as 'Think.Eat.Save' and 'Love Food Hate Waste' encourage individuals, businesses and governments to be less wasteful. E.g. by helping people plan their meals better and sharing recipe ideas for using up leftovers. They also encourage people to compost waste rather than putting it in the bin (food in landfill istes produces methane, a greenhouse gas).
  • Consumers can also choose food that has less packaging - this reduces the amount of resources that are used, and means that less plastic etc. goes into landfill, increasing environmental sustainability.
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Buy local and seasonal food.

  • In many wealthy countries, people expect to buy the foods they like all year round. This means that foods have to be imported for all or part of the year.
  • Consumers can choose to eat more food that has been produced locally (e.g. choosing potatoes thhat have been grown on a nearby farm). They can also eat seasonally - this means eating foods that grow locally at that time of year (e.g. only eating strawberries in the summer, when they are grown in the UK).
  • Local and seasonal consumption reduces the amount of food that is importedd, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions from transport. This makes it more environmentally sustainable.
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What is small-scale food production?

  • Small-scale food production (e.g. growing fruit and vegetables in the garden) is an alternative to large-scake agriculture). It relies on individuals and communities, rather than governments or large organisations - because of this, it's known as a 'bottom-up' approach.
  • It can help to increase food security:
  • food is grown in gardens, on balconies etc., so overall food production increases.
  • people can grow exactly what they want and pick it fresh each day which reduces waste.
  • methods are often organic and non-intensive - this helps keep the land fertile.
  • people are less reliant on expensive imported food, helping poorer people to eat healthily.
  • Small-scale approaches are usually less damaging to the environment than large-scale farming methods.
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List the types of small-scale approaches...

  • Permaculture
  • Urban gardens
  • Allotments
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  • About sustainable food production and consumption. People are encouraged to grow their own food and change their eating habits - eating fewer animal products and more fruit and vegetables, and buying local, organic or fair trade food wherever possible.
  • Food is grown in a way that recreates natural ecosystem - this protects the soil and wildlife, so it's environmentally sustainable. It also meaans that the growing site is low maintenance, so food can be grown with less time and effort - this increases its social sustainability.
  • Food production is deisgned to keep soils healthy so that crops can continue to grow. For example, mixed cropping is used which involves having plants of different heights and different types in one area. This means the available space and light are used better, there are fewer pestsand diseases ad less watering is required. Using few resources increases environmnetal sustainability.
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Urban gardens.

  • Use spaces such as empty land, roof tops and balconies in towns and cities to grow food. Many urban gardens are community projects, where people work together to grow food and improve their environment.
  • Urban gardens make food locally available, reducing the need to transport food long distances. This means its often fresher and more nutritious and can also be cheaper - improving the food security of poorer residents.
  • They add greenery to cities, making them healthier and more attractive places to live, so they're socially sustainable. It also makes urban areas less dependent on buying food produced by large-scale agriculture - this can help make it economically and environmentally sustainable.
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  • Areas of land in villages, towns or cities that are divided into plots and rented to individuals or small groups of people to grow plants, including plants and vegetables.
  • Many people in towns and cities have little or no garden, so an allotment lets them grow food.
  • Like urban gardens, allotments are environmentally and socially sustainable because they  allow people to grow cheap, healthy food close to home.
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CASE STUDY - UK's food security - Food consumption

  • Average calorie intake in the UK increased from about 2350 in 1940 to 2600 in 1960, then decreased to about 1750 by 2000.
  • However, this data doesn't include calories from drinks, sweets or meals out. If you include these food types, calorie intake in 2000 was around 2150. This is still lower than in 1940.
  • There are several reasons for this decrease in consumption:
  • a) people were more active in the past, so they needed more calories - fewer people have physical jobs now, and more people own cars and use them instead of e.g. walking or cycling.
  • b) there's more awareness of and concern about obesity and good nutrition now - e.g. the government regularly publishes reccommendations that people eat less high-calorie food such as fat and sugar.
  • c) there have been spikes in the cost of food - e.g. the price of wheat and rice peaked in 2008. This can make it difficult for the poorest to afford food, so their consumption decreases.
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CASE STUDY - UK food security - Food availability

  • In the UK, food availability is high - most people have enough to eat. The UK produces about 60% of the food it needs and imports the rest. Food security is affected by where food comes from - e.g. home-grown food availability can decrease if crops fail, and imports can decrease if prices go up.
  • Food availability has changed over time:
  • There was less food available during WWII - there were global food shortages, and imports to the UK were disrupted by German attacks on ships carrying food. The UK government introduced rationing of foods such as meat, cheese, eggs and sugar to make sure that everyone had enough.
  • The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was introduced in the 1950s - it increased production of crops such as wheat by intensifying agriculture. Since the 1990s, food production has been more sustainable, and yields have been fairly stable.
  • Since the 1960s, there has been a growing demand for seasonal products (e.g. strawberries) all year round and high-value foods such as exotic fruits, coffee and spices. Imports of these foods into the UK have increased, so they are constantly available - we produce only 22% of the fruit and vegetables we consume.
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CASE STUDY - UK food security - food banks.

  • Although food availability in the UK is high, there are about 5 million people who don't have enough to eat.
  • One way of tackling this is with food banks - people and companies donate food, which is handed out to those in need. Recipients get a package containing enough nutritious food to last them for three days.
  • One city where food banks are needed is Newcastle - around 8% of people in the city have used one of the food banks there. West End food bank is the busiest in the country, giving food to around 1000 people each week. Food banks in Newcastle have helped increase food security:
  • a) they reduce hunger and improve people's diets - improves health.
  • b) some shops and bakeries donate unsold fresh food at the end of the day, reducing waste.
  • c) some food banks give lessons in cooking and budgeting, to help people with limited money eat healthily.
  • However, food banks don't evolve underlying problems, such as low wages and benefit cuts.
  • It's difficult for food banks to store fresh food, so a lot of the food that is given out is processed - this can have lots of added salt and sugar, which can cause health problems in the long run.
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CASE STUDY - UK food security - Intensification...

  • Intensification of farming from the 1940s to the 1980s was an attempt to increase food security by increasing production. The methods used included:
  • a) Higher yielding crops and animals.
  • b) Monoculture - growing just one crop over a large area.
  • c) Irrigation technologies, e.g. groundwater pumping, electric sprinklers.
  • d) Chemicals, e.g. fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides.
  • e) Mechanisation, e.g. use of machines for sowing, harvesting, weeding and spraying.
  • This was effective in increasing food security in the UK - in 1940, the UK imported 70% of its cereal crops, but by 1980 this had decreased to 20%. However, intensification also had negative impacts such as:
  • Monoculture crops could be wiped out by a single pest, drought or disease, e.g. cereal crop yields decreased by about 500,000 tonnes because of drought in 1976.
  • Intensive methods caused environmental damage, for example:
  • a) monoculture reduced biodiversity, especially of flowering plants and insects.
  • b) the chemicals used caused pollution of land and water, disrupting ecosystems.
  • c) over-exploiting the land led to reduced soil fertility and increased soil erosion in some areas.
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CASE STUDY - UK food security - Hydroponics.

  • Recently, the UK government has promoted 'sustainable intensification', which aims to increase food security without damaging the environment. One method of sustainable intensification is using new technology, such as hydroponics to increase food production and security.
  • Hydroponics is used on a large scale in abandoned WWII tunnels under London, and at Thanet Earth in Kent, which produces 10% of the UK's peppers, cucumbers and tomatoes in huge greenhouses.
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CASE STUDY - UK food security - + Hydroponics.


  • Salad vegetables can be grown in the UK all year round, reducing reliance on imports. This means that the UK is less likely to be affected by e.g. shortages or price increases of food.
  • Food can be grown in spaces that would otherwise not be used (e.g. underground tunnels), so food production increases overall.
  • Many schemes aim to be environmentally sustainable - e.g. they recycle water and use natural predators to kill pests - this reduces the need for artificial pesticides.
  • They also create jobs, e.g. Thanet Earth employs 500 people.
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CASE STUDY - UK food security - - of Hydroponics.


  • Schemes can be expensive to set up and run, which increases the cost of the food produced - this may mean that some people can't afford it.
  • Some schemes, e.g. Thanet Earth, have been built in rural areas, so natural habitats have been destroyed.
  • Schemes like Thanet Earth require a large amount of energy to power the greenhouses, as well as to package and deliver the produce to the shops.
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