OCR GCSE Psychology Unit 2: Perception FULL SET notes & revision questions

A full set of notes for ocr gcse psychology unit 2: perception topic. Contains information about Constructivist theory, Nativist theory, Haber and Levin and the application into advertising. There are also a set of questions at the end to test how well you know the topic

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  • Created on: 01-03-12 19:38
Preview of OCR GCSE Psychology Unit 2: Perception FULL SET notes & revision questions

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Unit 2 Psychology Notes
Perception
Content List
Key Concepts: Sensation, Perception, Depth cues, Visual illusions, Shape Constancy, Colour
Constancy
Core Theory: Constructivist theory
Alternative theory: Nativist theory
Core Study: Haber and Levin (2001)
Application: Advertising
Key Concepts
Sensation
The physical process of receiving information from the environment via the senses e.g. the eye
receiving light waves.
Perception
The cognitive process by which we interpret the sensory information from the environment.
Perception transforms sensory data into meaningful sounds and images e.g. the brain interpreting
the light waves to see a room.
Depth cues
Depth cues are a variety of cues within the environment that help us understand depth.
Visual Constancies
These are ways in which we perceive things as staying the same even though the sensory data is
constantly changing. See visual constancies below:
Shape Constancy
The sensory information changes depending on the angle the object is viewed from, but our
perceptual adjustments allow us to see the sdhape as staying the same for example looking at a car
at different angles.

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Colour Constancy
Lighting affects the colour of an object but our perceptual systems allows us to see it as the same
colour at different light levels.
Depth Cues
Linear Perspective
As you look down a stretch of motorway, the outside lines of the
road and the white line marking appear to come together or
converge to a distant point.…read more

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Texture Gradient
Imagine you are standing on a beach and are walking along it. The
grains of sand and pebbles are pretty clear when you look down at
them. However when you look along the beach they appear to
blend into one and have a smoother, less detailed texture. We use
this effect to spot nearness and distance.
Visual Illusions
A visual illusion is when sensory data is misinterpreted. Our perceptual system makes incorrect
adjustments to sensory data and plays a trick on us.…read more

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Core Theory: Constructivist Theory
The constructivist theory proposes that we construct our perception from past experiences.
Top-down processing is the idea that what we see is based upon the brains prior knowledge.
Whereas perceptual set is based on perceiving a situation because of what we expect to see, for
example arranging to meet a friend outside the cinema, you will be more likely to notice them
quicker because you expect them to be there.
A number of factors alter the way we will perceive.…read more

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Alternative Theory: Nativist Theory
This theory suggests we are born with all our perceptual functions ready to be used and do not have
to rely on experience unlike the constructivist theory.
This theory relies on bottom-up processing, which is when perception is dominated by what enters
the eyes (rather than what we expect to see)
Gibson identified optic flow patterns which are an example of available environmental information.…read more

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Core Study: Haber and Levin (2001)
AIM
To test between top-down and bottom-up processing in relation to their theories, Nativist and
Constructivist.
PROCEDURE
Nine male college students who has been tested for good eyesight were driven out to a large grassy
field surrounded by trees on three sides.…read more

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LIMITATIONS
The results cannot be generalised because the sample was very small and was all male
participants. The sample was only college students
The results cannot be generalised to other cultures because it was only tested in the USA
which means that other cultures may not have as much experience with other real world
objects
The experiment lacks ecological validity because it was only in artificial, controlled settings
Application: Advertising
The main theory that influences advertising is the Constructivist (top down theory).…read more

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Questions
1) Distinguish between sensation and perception (2 marks)
2) Describe one type of visual constancy (2 marks)
3) What is meant by linear perspective?(2 marks)
4) Explain one visual illusion(2 marks)
5) Describe & Evaluate one theory of perception(6 marks)
6) Explain how psychology is used in advertising(4 marks)…read more

Comments

MrsMacLean

These notes are brilliant and the questions are well thought out.  A must-have revision resource!

Lucywilliams

Not all that! needed Gregory's theory and experiments such as the Palmer's experiment and the Bartlett! xo

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