GCSE OCR IT revision cards

These are some IT revision cards for the OCR GCSE course. I think just about everything is on these in note form, so in the exam expand on them :) hope they're helpful!

p.s. sorry some of the notes are squished! 

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ICT Systems - systems

  • Components - CPU, performs all instructions & calculations, motherboard is PCB, holds many of system's vital components
  • Internal memory - ROM (read only), RAM (random access)
  • Backing storage - most common device is hard drive
  • Type of computer - personal computers, mainframe computers, super computers
  • Hardware - actual parts of computer, physical
  • Software - provides instructions that system needs
  • Input device - enter data e.g. keyboard
  • Output device - transfer/display data e.g. printers
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ICT Systems - hardware

  • Input devices - keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner
  • Output devices - monitor, inkjet printer, speakers, digital projector
  • Hard drive - advantages: cheap, large storage, not easily lost, fast; disadvantages: can fail & damage (lost/corrupt files), not very portable
  • Optical Storage Devices (CD/DVD/Blue-ray) - advantages: lightweight, cheap, widespread compatibility; disadvantages: easily scratched, limited storage capacity
  • Magnetic tape - advantages: cheap, large storage, durable; disadvantages: slow, needs a tape streamer
  • Memory sticks & cards - advantages: small, light, portable, large storage for their size; disadvantages: breakable, lost easily
  • Communication devices - modems: encode digital computer signals into analogue signals; routers & hubs: find efficient path for data transfer; network interface cards: allows users to connect to a network via wifi
  • User interfaces - provide platform for interaction; Graphical User Interface (GUI): used in computers, MP3 players, based on graphics, easy to use, look good, use lots of computer power; Command Line: enter text commands; Direct Neural: pathway between brain & external device.
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ICT Systems - software

  • Operating systems - control & monitor software & hardware e.g. Windows; different types: interactive, multi-tasking, real-time, online, multi-user
  • Utility software - analyse, configure, optimise, maintain system e.g. anti-virus system
  • Drivers - support hardware to communite with OS
  • Application software - word processors, spreadsheets, databases, destop publishing, presentation, web authoring, multimedia, graphics-editing, video-editing, communication
  • Programming software - compilers, debuggers, interpreters, linkers, editors
  • File types - Images (JPEG, GIF, TIFF); audio (WAV, MP3, AAC); video (MPEG2, MPEG4, AVI), document (DOC, XLS, PDF)
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Exchanging Information - communication

  • Communication services - fax, telephone, VoIP, SMS texting, instant messaging, chat rooms,  forums, SatNav/GPS, email
  • Sharing files - file naming conventions, file permissions (no access, read only etc), responsible use of communication services
  • Blogs - advantages: read opinions of topics you care about, own opinion across; disadvantages: info may be inaccurate, hard to distinguish truth from garbage
  • Communication software - web browsers & search engines (URL, homepage, refresh etc); email software (new, reply, forward etc)
  • Social networking - advantages: keep in touch, like-minded people, sharing, marketing & advertising tool; disadvantages: security, less face-to-face interaction, paedophillia, cyber bullying, identity fraud.
  • Remote Access to computer systems - control a host computer, enables working from home
  • Monitoring & Tracking systems - RFID, cookies, key logging, mobile phone tracking, auto number plate recognition
  • Wi-Fi - wireless fidelity; Bluetooth - transmits data; Geographical Information System (GIS) - mapping
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Presenting Information

  • Word Processing & Destop Publishing (DTP) software - indentation, paragraphs, tabs, lists, bullets, borders, columns, layout, grouping, tables, spelling, grammar check, word count
  • Word processing - letters, essays, reports (Word); DTP - posters, leaflets, brochures
  • Slideshow software - insert slide, slide layouts, buttons, hyperlinks, animation, colour schemes (PowerPoint)
  • Multimedia software - volume adjustment, mute, play, pause, start, stop (Windows Media Player)
  • Web Authoring - Master pages, navigation bar, animations, hyperlinks, forms, HTML
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Manipulating Data - Data Management

  • Number formats - integers, currency, percentage, fraction, decimals
  • Encoding Data - 'M' for male, 'F' for female; faster, easy to validate
  • Questionaires - advantages: accurate answers, if coded results instant; disadvantages: misinterpret, poor hand writing (incorrect data inputting)
  • Data Capture Form - e.g. bank application form; advantages: specific answers to questions, fast; disadvantages: copying errors, poor handwritng
  • Chip & PIN - advantages: PIN is 4 digits, easy to remember, secure usually; disadvantages: easily damaged, easily forgotten
  • Biometrics - advantages: high accuracy, carry it; disadvantages: intrusive, expensive
  • Radio Frequency ID (RFID) - advantages: communicate through objects, secure; disadvantages: expensive, damage (water
  • Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) - e.g. Nation Lottery; advantages:simple to use, quickly read; disadvantages: paper damage, offline markings
  • Barcode readers - advantages: instant identification, fast; disadvantages: damage, kept up to date
  • Validation - check data is complete & secure e.g. check digits
  • Verification - check data is correct e.g. double-keying
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Manipulating Data - data handling software

  • Features of spreadsheets - columns, rows, cells, formulae, graphs & charts
  • Forumlae & functions - '=A1+A2' add values of A1 & A2 etc; functions: '=SUM(A1:A3)' add all values between A1 & A3; '=MAX(A1:A2)' largest value between A1 & A3
  • Data Modelling - reflect real life process, contain data & rules, use past data to predict future, do calculations; for spreadsheets: formulae, sort data, macros, automatic calulations
  • Features of databases - field, record, field names, insert/delete/edit records, organise records, queries, reports, primary key to link data
  • Flat file - advantages: simple, variety of format; disadvantages: duplicated, uptaking
  • Relational databases - advantages: reduced input effort, data only stored once; disadvantages: complexity, needs skilled people
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Keeping Data Safe

  • Back ups & archiving - copies data, archive is where files no longer used are checked for reference; depends on content, frequency, back up media, location
  • Protecting data - physical: secure equipment, locks, biometric scans; software: login details, passwords, access rights, encryption
  • Data encryption - jumple up words
  • Malware - viruses, worms, trojans, spyware, adware
  • Hacking - key logging, use firewall/intrusion detection systems
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Legal, Social, Ethical & Environmental Issues with

  • Computer Misuse Act 1990 - hacking, viruses etc; levels 1 to 3, 3 being worst 
  • Data Protection Act 1998 - data subjects can view, edit, delete their personal data, data must be secure, not transferred out of Europe etc
  • Personal Data Guardian Code - accountability, visibly, consent, access, stewardship, responsibility
  • Copyright Law - illegal media download & file sharing
  • Health & safety - stress, RSI, pressure on workers, eye strain, ELF radiation, back/neck ache; regular breaks, eye tests, adjustable furniture, control room temp; accessibility: for the disabled, custom destop environment, Braille, specialist input devices, voice recognition
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Using ICT Systems

  • Start/shut down - switch user, log off/on, lock, restart, shut down etc
  • System settings - security, display, hardware, adding user accounts, language settings
  • Folder structure & files - folder > subfolder > filename = path
  • Filnaming - e.g. Word - DOCX, Powerpoint - PPTX, clear, less chance of deletion, short
  • Networking - Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN); advantages: sharing, security; disadvantages: can fail, viruses spread
  • Trouble shooting - software freeze, error dialogues, storage full, printer paper jam
  • Software problems - make computer run slowly, incompatibility, Blue Screen of Death; solved by uninstalling/reinstalling/updating
  • Hardware problems - display distorted, ports may not work, failure to load OS, network interace card may not work; resolved by repairing/replacing
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Monitoring, Measurement & Control Technology

  • Sensors - temperature, light, humidity, pressure, radioactivity, sound, infra-red
  • Data Logging - device being logged -> sensor -> interface box -> computer -> data stored for analysis
  • Advantages of data logging - fast, accurate, 24/7, used remotely, cheap, contineous
  • Disadvantages - expensive equipment, interference cause problems, training
  • Controlling devices - FD forward, BK backward, RT right, LT left, PU pen up, PD pen down; e.g. actuator, lights, buzzers, robotic arms
  • Control-Feedback Loop - computer -> interface box -> sensor -> device being controlled & back the other way
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ICT & Modern Living

  • Online banking & financial services - 24/7 access, bank balance, pay credit, new accounts etc, holds large amount of info, convenient
  • Online shopping - browse, convenient, small businesses thrive, helps physically unable
  • Changing pattern of employment - fewer manufacturing jobs, more IT jobs, globalisation, need skilled workers, homeworking, flexible hours, ease of roles, increased unemployment
  • Collaboration - 2 organisations, project management, group plans, discuss issues, consistency, meetings, use chart graphs etc
  • Teleconferencing - advantages: no travel, short notice meetings, saves money, videoconferencing; disadvantages: time zones, rely on broadband, need technology; used for businesses, leisure, education, cultural interaction
  • Uses of Internet - advantages: vast amounts of info available 24/7, access organisations you care about; disadvantages: lack of central control, info may be wrong
  • Online hazards - phishing scams, spam, viruses, spyware
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Laura Newland

Thanks! I'm doing a GCSE ICT Resit tommorow and a lot of this is really helpful.


I am doing the same resit! This is awesome.

Ciarán Morrison

Ye, i am doing The resit Tomorrow And These Are Great, Good Luck Guys :)

Jenny Hoper

Hope they were helpful! I actually found the exam ok :)

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