OCR AS UNIT 2 PSYCHOLOGY KEY TERMS

All the definitions you need to know for the core studies exam. If you have any questions just comment and i'll do my best :) 

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DEFINITIONSUNIT 2: CORE STUDIESPSYCHOLOGY AS
GENERAL TERMS
Ecological Validity How like real life is the research?
Nature We were born with this behaviour
Nurture We learn this behaviour
Reliability Is it consistent?
Validity The accuracy of a measure
Qualitative Non-numerical data, detailed explanations, gives reasons why
Quantitative Numerical data, can undergo statistical analysis
Reductionism Explained by reducing the conclusion to a much simpler level, too
simple?
Determinism Our behaviour is determined by factors outside our control
Individual We behave the way we do because of our individual characteristics
Situational We behave the way we do because of the situation we are in
Consent Investigator should inform all participants of the objectives before they
take part
Deception Investigator should not withhold information or mislead
Debriefing Telling the participants any information at the end of the study that they
were not told in the beginning of the study
Withdrawal Should be clear to participants that they have the right to withdrawal
Confidentiality All information obtained about a participant should be kept confidential,
unless permission is given
Protection Participants should not undergo physical or psychiatric harm
Assent A child's agreement to participate in an activity, having had it made clear
to them that they can start and stop the activity whenever they wish
Independent Variable Think manipulated by experimenter
Dependent Variable This measured by experimenter
Statistic Tests Let you know how likely your results are to be due to chance
Demand Characteristics Where a participant tries to guess what the study is about and look for
clues as to how to behave
Order Effects Effects such as improvement in performance, boredom or tiredness that
occur as a result of the order of conditions or tasks
Quasi-Experiment Where the independent variable is naturally occurring
Cause and Effect Refers to the ability to establish one variable is having an effect on
another, can be done my controlling all extraneous variables
Anecdotal evidence Evidence gathered without a systematic approach
Subjectivity Bias created by a person's own interpretation or point of view
Independent Measures A method that involves comparing the results from separate groups or
Design populations
Inter-Rater Reliability Describes how well independent observers score events; 1 is an exact
match
Controlled Observation Observations of the reactions of participants in a specific situation
Cover Story A false explanation of the aim of the study, prevents demand
characteristics
Standardised Refers to any aspect of the procedure that is kept exactly the same for
each participant
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DEFINITIONSUNIT 2: CORE STUDIESPSYCHOLOGY AS
Attitude Scale A way of measuring a person's attitude towards something,
quantitative measure
Experimental Realism The extent to which the participants perceive a situation to be real
Mundane Realism The extent to which a procedure or task relates to everyday life
Time-Series Approach A study that introduces changes to the independent variable over time
Psychometric Testing Tests that attempt to measure psychological characteristics such as
mood and self-esteem.…read more

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DEFINITIONSUNIT 2: CORE STUDIESPSYCHOLOGY AS
expelling faeces
Phallic Stage: children become aware of their genitals and sexual
differences
PHYSIOLOGICAL
Limbic System Set of brain structures including the hippocampus and the amygdale that
support a variety of functions including emotion and long-term memory
Hippocampus The part of the brain that is concerned with memory and spatial
navigation
MRI Scan (magnetic resonance imaging) Method that uses radio waves to obtain
3D images of brain and body tissue
Electroencephalograph A non-invasive method for measuring the electrical activity of…read more

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