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PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
KEYWORDS
AIM: What you are trying to find out- purpose of the study
HYPOTHESIS: A testable statement of what you expect to happen in the study

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EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: Predicts there will be an effect- that something other than chance
alone has played a part in the results of the study.
DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS (one tailed): Predicts the expected direction of the results- can only
go one way
NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS (two-tailed): Does not predict the expected direction of…

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DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS: Features that inform participants about the aim and can influence
their behaviour or results. Can be reduced by single blind technique and double blind
technique
SINGLE BLIND TECHNIQUE: Participants are not aware of the aims of the experiment
DOUBLE BLIND TECHNIQUE: Both participant researcher are unaware of aim…

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Easy to analyse Represents the complexity of human behaviour
Produces neat conclusions Provides rich detail
Oversimplifies reality More difficult to detect patterns and reach conclusions
Subjective, affected by personal expectations and beliefs


MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION
MEASURES OF MEAN Adds values, divide by Makes use of all data…

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Contain set of questions that contain both open and closed questions in which participants record
their answers.
When writing good questions, there are three important things to know:
Clarity: Questions need to be written so that the reader understands what is being
asked. One way to do this is operationalise…

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RATING SCALES:
Also known as "likert scale".
It's where participants strongly agree or disagree with statements.
Strengths Weaknesses

Gives an idea about how strongly a Participants can interpret options differently
participant feels about something Participants are more likely to respond
Gives more detail than a simple yes/no towards the middle…

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Weakness: Can be time consuming, difficult to sample randomly if you have a large target
population

Stratified sampling:
This involves dividing the target population into subcategories and then selecting members out of
this in the proportion they occur in the target population. For example, if a target population
consisted of…

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HYPOTHESIS:
There are two types of hypothesis: The experimental (alternative) hypothesis (H) and the null
hypothesis (H)
Experimental hypothesis:
This is the hypothesis that predicts there will be an effect- that something other than chance alone
has played a part in the results of the study.
There are two was…

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Difficult to debrief
Ethical issues- difficult to gain consent


3) QUASI/NATURAL: This is where the independent variable is not manipulated by the researcher
but occurs naturally. It is carried out to compare the effectiveness of the two different styles.
Strengths Weaknesses

Participants are unaware that they're taking part in Harder…

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