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F215 Module 1: Cellular Control and Variation
5.1.1 Cellular Control

(a) state that genes code for polypeptides including enzymes
Gene ­ a length of DNA that codes for one or more
polypeptides , including enzymes.
Polypeptide ­ a polymer consisting of a chain of amino
acids residues joined by peptide…

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F215 Module 1: Cellular Control and Variation


(d) describe, with the aid of diagrams, how the sequence of nucleotides within a gene is used to construct a
polypeptide, including the roles of messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomes
Translation ­ the assembly of polypeptides (proteins) at ribosomes.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)…

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F215 Module 1: Cellular Control and Variation




(f) explain how mutations can have beneficial neutral or harmful effects on the way a protein functions
Allele ­ an alternative version of a gene. It is still at the same locus on the chromosome and codes for the same
polypeptide but the…

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F215 Module 1: Cellular Control and Variation
Structural genes ­ the enzymes:
o galactosidase ­ breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose .
o Lactose permease ­ helps the cell to absorb lactose /increase uptake of lactose.
Control sites:
o Operator region ­ binds to the repressor and can switch…

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F215 Module 1: Cellular Control and Variation
Homeotic selector genes ­ specifies the identity of each segment and direct the development of
individual body segments . These are the master genes in the control networks of regulatory genes . There
are two gene families:
o The complex that regulates development…

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