OCR - Enquiry topic: Britain at War 1914-18 (COMPLETE)

Complete and detailed notes for Britain at War topic of Enquiry topic - England & a New Century c.1900-1951

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Britain 1900-51 (OCR)

Enquiry topic- England & a New Century c.1900-1951
Britain at war 1914-18

1. Attitudes to war
2. Impact of war on the home front
3. Political development during the war
4. The coalition of 1915
5. Creation of Lloyd George's Coalition
6. Splits in the liberal party…

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o Intellectuals, scientists, musicians & writers (British intelligentsia)saw Germany as a
major component of European culture not as a militaristic menace - cultural hub

o Conscientious objectors decides to oppose the war

o Two types one objects to war completely secondly will engage in a supportive role
but will not…

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Widows pensions, disability allowances and separation payments paid by the state

Benefits for the Home Front

Provision of munitions canteens of subsidised food, 900 feeding a million by 1918

School meals for the poor set up in 1908. Extended to needy children during the year

Old age pensioners could continue…

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Many supported the freedom of smaller nations but opposed militarism

Joining Russia seen as obnoxious and repressive regime

Conservatives was less divided, supporting the war

Labour was divided. The bulk following pro-war Henderson instead of pacifist
MacDonald

1915

First major offenses in Belgium

Germans had established extensive defences and tactis…

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Coalition significance

Facilitated the rise of LG

LG provide the real dynamism of war effort, developing Munitions into the key
element of government

Little attempt made to interfere with military strategy, left to Haig and his
commanders

Conscription was introduced in 1916 and emphasis was put on western front

LG…

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Labour agreed to serve under him

Prominent liberals followed Asquith

December, the first "son of the people" became PM
On 7th

Reasons Lloyd George became PM

As minster for munitions and then war, he had shown a new energy mobilising the
country to increase production and deal with workers

The…

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o The liberals divided between Asquith, LG, demand for a negotiated peace and
Labour

o LG became a leader with no party, split in the party was made worse by LG's
leadership

o The effects of the split, extension of the franchise, growth of labour support and
organisation split the…

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Old system where socialist societies had a special vote (more weighing on their
vote) was replaced with "block voting" - the bigger your union more forcefully your
vote



February 1916- Russian Revolution

Changed relationship between the Labour Party and the war

First stage of the Russian revolution

Socialist parts of…

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The whole Labour Party would now make decisions, socialism societies lost their
special votes

After 1918 the labour was far more together, socialism and unions working closer
together.



New aims of the party - distinctly socialist

"Common ownership of the means of production"

Committed to being very socialist party from…

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o Leaders had achieved ministerial even cabinet rank

o Benefited from big growth in trade union membership in the war

o Increased its popular vote

o United behind its new constitution compared with divided Liberals

o Block vote of the trade unions ensured a moderate executive committee

o Local organisation…

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