OCR - Period Study: British Politics 1918-29 (COMPLETE)

Complete and detailed notes for British Politics (Part1) topic of Period Study - Britain c. 1918-51

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Britain 1900-51 (OCR)
Period Study- Britain c.1918-51
British politics 1918-29
1. Reasons for the outcome of 1918 election
2. Results of Coupon Election
3. Consequences of election
4. Foreign policy, LG coalition 1918-22
5. Ireland policies, LG coalition 1918-22
6. Social policies, LG coalition 1918-22
7. LG's fall from power
8. 1923 election and significance
9. Labour gov 1924 aims
10. Labour achievements- foreign policy
11. Labour achievements- domestic reforms
12. Fall of Labour October 1924
13. Decline of the Liberals
14. Conservative recovery 1918-24 -
15. Baldwin as PM
16. Work of Neville Chamberlain
17. Financial policy, Churchill as Chancellor
18. Foreign policy
19. Extension of the franchise
20. 1929 election and Labour victory
Reasons for the outcome of the 1918 "coupon" election
First election since 1910
Coalition was maintained because:
LG wanted to maintain his power and prestige he gained from his coalition with the
Conservatives as PM
Conservatives depended on LG. Their leader Bonar Law was not nearly as dynamic
Both LG and Conservatives concerned about the rise of Labour, wanted to create a
front against them
After war disagreements it would be difficult for LG to reunite with Asquith. Only
choice was to maintain his links with the Conservatives
In election those backed by LG and Bonar Law received a letter stating they were the official
coalition candidate for the area - a "coupon"
1918 "coupon" election
Coalition ­ 473
Conservatives ­ 50
Liberals ­ 36

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Labour ­ 57
Coalition candidates won a large majority
Conservatives outnumbered the Liberals three to one
Labour did not win any more seats than 1910 but gained more votes
Reasons why the coalition won?
The letter of endorsement from LG and the Conservatives, prevented a split in the
vote
Law urged Conservatives to vote for coalition Liberals where there was no official
conservative candidate
LG had very high personal popularity after Britain's victory over Germany in
November 1918
Coalition had proved successful in meeting the…read more

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British aims met by LG
Restrictions put on future German fleet
Germany's colonies were distributed to the allies to be ruled under "mandate"
from the LoN in the interest of the people who lived there
Problems in new mandates
Unrest in Iraq meant using force against "rebels"
Balfour Deceleration didn't help, tensions rapidly increased
Getting of German Kiaochow and Pacific islands by Japan encouraged Japanese
nationalism and expansion meaning UK territory in East Asia had to be defended
African colonies increased administration and defence costs…read more

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Russian revolution
Overthrow of tsar was not a big issue for Britain
However decision of Lenin to withdraw from the war and the execution of the royal
family lead to pressure to intervene against the Bolsheviks
When it became clear that the Whites had little chance of winning and the war
became unpopular at home LG pulled out
Summary
o Britain was unable to prevent the French from taking the Ruhr in 1923 to enforce the
repayment of reparations
o LG's diplomacy was unpopular in…read more

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Addison Housing Act ­ local authorities were to build 70,000 houses with low rates
each year, buildings subsided with £260 per house and 213,000 were built
1920
o Unemployment act ­ extended 1911 act to more occupations
o Agriculture act ­ guaranteed agriculture prices to help farmers, protected labourer's
wages by special board
1921
o Unemployment insurance ­ extension of 26 weeks of payments, introduction of
"transitional payments" or the "dole" to stop the unemployed from going to the
workhouse
o Unemployment dependants act ­…read more

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Successful demilitarisation of 4 million men
No violent revolutions like Russia, Germany and Italy
Many glad to see the end to gov control
General consensus gov had duty to reduce the deficit
LG's fall from power
Reasons for his downfall
Inconsistency in foreign policy, LG's desire to go to war with Turkey when armed
forces were being reduced
Intervention in Russian civil war was unpopular and unsuccessful
Inconsistency with Russian policy- trade treaty with regime then tried to overthrow it
in March 1921
Conservatives disliked…read more

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Proved the undoing of the Liberals, they were marginalised
· Mixture of old and new free trade debate make the election significant
Aims of 1924 Labour gov
o Official aims were established in 1918 constitution ­ socialist ideas of part of the
party before the war but did not have the support of many members so prevented the
party from having national appeal
o Still in minority so couldn't do anything radical or they would be stopped
o Aimed to resist the pressures of the…read more

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Agricultural act
Gave farmers money to set up wage boards and set up a sort of minimum wage for
different types of farming
First tried in 1920 but failed, this system remained in place till after WW2 in 1946
2. Unemployment insurance act
Created a system where your benefits were extended
Cash was paid out after your national insurance finished with the dole
3.…read more

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Was not kind to the workers, used Emergency powers act to get transport
worker to go back to work in 1924
o Did nothing to help with the independence movement in the empire, built up
planes against Iraq and was more aggressive
1924 election
Results
Conservatives ­ 419
Labour ­ 151
Liberals ­ 40
Reasons for the Liberal's decline
Party was in terminal decline ­ D angerfield, a man constantly being run over by a
bus multiple times
Split over Ireland
North-East Derbyshire by election-…read more

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Work of Neville Chamberlain
o Headed the ministry of health
o Passed 22 of 25 proposed plans including food hygiene, medical training and slum
clearance
o The 1925 Widows, Orphans and Old Age Pension act extended the old age pension
to those who paid to 65 extending 1911 act ­ major step to relieving poverty but still
dependent on workers paying in to the scheme
o Reformed local taxes in 1928, law in 1929.…read more

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