OCR - Enquiry topic: Social Issues 1900-1918 (COMPLETE)

Complete and detailed notes for Social Issues topic of Enquiry topic - England & a New Century c.1900-1951

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Britain 1900-51 (OCR)
Enquiry topic- England & a New Century c.1900-1951
Social Issues 1900-18
1. Development of new liberalism
2. Debate over poverty and national efficiency
3. The Liberal Reforms
New Liberalism and Gladstonian Liberalism
"Gladstonian" Liberalism
1. Free trade
o trade free of tariffs (taxes placed on imports) and quotas
o Fostering competitiveness and efficiency.
2. `laissez-faire'
o the State should intervene as little as possible in society or the economy
o favoured a government with a very limited role,
o low taxation
o Protection of non conformists' interests.
3. The importance of reform
o Promote education,
o defend the rights and freedoms of the individual
o Pressurising the ruling classes to lessen the effects of privilege.
New Liberalism - Asquith, Haldane, Lloyd George and Churchill.
David Lloyd George became leader of the party after Gladstone's death in 1898. Political
hero was chamberlain (and his progressive views). Dominated the government by 1906
Agreed that to stop the rise of socialism they needed to broaden their political appeal
Realised that the working classes had difficulty saving for retirement, unemployment
or sickness because of LOW WAGES which created a relentless cycle of poverty.
Pursued a policy of social reform. Becoming their main policy
o New understanding of new relationship between state and the individual
o Minimal Intervention to maximise standard of living and establish poorer
sections of society
o Free trade/ business without control
o Idea of "self help"
o Higher government spending
o Natural extension of traditional liberalism
o Freedom from things
o Target poverty, poor wages and insecurity

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Did not help/was not promoted to win the 1906 election
Debate over poverty and national efficiency
Debate centred on how to deal with it
Lead to introduction of the Poor Law from 1905-1909
Poverty was seen a moral issue ­ widespread availability of private charities for
deserving cases
Helen Bosanquet thought state aid would undermine existing charities and the
self-reliance of the poor, instead increasing poverty
Fabians society and Beatrice Webb f elt it was the job of the state to provide
national minimum…read more

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School medical inspections 1907
Doctors and nurses went to schools providing free compulsory
medical checks
Could recommend any necessary treatment
Treatment payment by parents till 1910
3. Education act 1907
Scholarships for children from poor families
Secondary schools received money from the local government to
reserve 20% of places for poor children
Places chosen through an exam
4.…read more

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Covered 10 million men and 4 million women
4.…read more


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