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Chapter 15 Notes The course and cost of the war
Hitler had always intended to invade Russia.
By mid1941, the German army were well prepared for war with
In June, Hitler, convinced of this own strength, launched
In September 1941, operation Typhoon was launched to capture
Law and order broke down, government buildings were deserted
and it was rumoured that Stalin was already in German hands.
By December, General Zhukov had launched the first Russian
counterattack, which successfully pushed the German army back
to about 200 kilometres from the centre of Moscow.
Hitler's operation Blue was launched in June 1942 and aimed to
capture the city of Stalingrad.
Hilter believed that if he could overrun Stalingrad, he would
deprive the Russian war effort of a vital industrial base and score
an enormous propaganda victory by conquering the city that bore
At the beginning in August 1941, war arguably the bloodiest in
At one point during the battle, it was estimated that th life
expectancy of a Russian soldier there was less than 24 hours.
Over 1.9 million people died during the siege, but still the Russians
Stalin to blame?
The appalling losses suffered by the Russian people in 1941 and
1942 were the result, in large part, of Stalin's mismanagement of
the Russian military.
He had precise information from British intelligence, as well as
Russian spires, regarding the time of the attack.
The army purges had significantly weakened the Russian military.
Stalin ignored the advice of leading Red Army general who were
keen to update the Russian military strategy.
War palling was confused, chaotic and limited by the purges
emphasising the invincibility of the Red Army.
Stalin was determined not to lose Moscow, Leningrad or
Stalin mobilised the entire resource of the Soviet Union for war.
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The Soviet counteroffensive, Operation Uranus, was launched in
~The defence of Stalingrad alone cost 1.1 million Red Army lives
and 800,000 German troops were killed during the conflict.
By February 1943 two thirds of the Germanoccupied territory had
By early January 1945, the Red Army had entered German
territory, and Russian soldiers sought revenge for the Nazi
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Woman made up the majority of the Russian workforce during the
Women were also frequently required to perform task that were
usually performed by machines or animals.
Family at War:
The war affected all groups within Russian society.
Young people between the ages of 14 and 17 were generally
drafted into `labour reserve schools' a form of vocational training
in preparation for war work.…read more