Stalin, Trotsky and the Struggle for power after Lenin's death


Importance of Control of Party Organization

He tricked Trotsky into not attending Lenin's funeral, told him the wrong day

1923, formed the Triumvirate with Zinoviev and Kamenev to lead Trotsky out of the party

Won votes due to his delegates which he had packed Congress with. They had been promoted by Stalin so felt they should back what he backed in thanks

Stayed in background when the left wing began to fight, making him peaceful, he could also continue to add more of his supporters to key positions in the party

When Zinoviev and Kamenevtried to attack Stalin after he joined forces with Bukharin in 1925, they had no power because he has all voted due to his delegates

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When in 1926, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky (ex-enemies) joined forces in 'United Opposition' trying to appeal to the masses and organized demonstration in Moscow.

Stalin used the Ban of Faction (1921) against them and expelled them from the party in 1927 and to lose their positions

Stalin's idea of 'Socialism in one Country' 1925, was supported by many, attracting right-wing voters, it was also good as it seemed to fit in with the NEP

In 1928 when Stalin turned away from the NEP, realizing it was going to fail, he joined the left in promotion of rapid industrialization, even in Bukharin's strong defence it was outvoted by Stalin's supporters

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Stalin's Personal Characteristics and Skills

Willing to play dirty where as the others didn't.

Sread rumours about Bukharin

He knew when to back off, in February 1928, he campaigned aganst Bukharin however when facd with resistance he backed off, he was great at manipulation

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Weaknesses of opposition, especially Trotsky

Trotsky liked to play by the rules e.g. could have appealed to voters to gain support, but didn't as helped to create the ban on factinos in 1921 and didn't want to create divided within the party.

Trotsky not attending the funeral ruined his reputation.

Trotsky also kept silent about Lenin's Testament, didn't speak out about it,  making it public would have gained him support

Zinoviev and Kamenev believe he could help them to defeat Trotsky

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The decision to not publish Lenin's Testemant, which would have ruined his chances of getting onto power

Trotsky being of ill health neglected his powerful position in the Politburo, missing meetings and excluding himself from discussion

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Extra Notes

The Triumviratewas both good and bad, good as it helped Trotsky get power, just. Zinoviev and Kamenev needed Stalin to make up votes, if Lenin's testament had have been published it would have spelt disaster making them and him look bad but also Stalin wouldn't have the votes so that theywould have gained the majority so Trotsky would still have won.

Zinoviev and Kamenev argued for Stalin to keep his job (bad move) as they believed he had changed since Lenin had written his testament thus no need to remove him. They agreed that publishing the works would undermine the government's authority, should be a secret.

After retaining general secretary, Stalin used it against Trotsky, giving lists to the local parties of approved candidates for the Party Congress which they hada 'free' choice over who to send, the approved were all Stalin's supporters, so Stalin has complete control

Zinoviev and Kamenev attempted to to suggest that Trotsky's ideals were not that of Lenin's and his 'Trotskyism' was a form of Menshevism and incompatible with that of Leninism. they emphasised the disagreements between Lenin and Trotsky during 1903-1917, questioning his loyalty. Due to this Congress condemned Trotsky for forming a faction against Lenin.

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Extra Notes 2

The Triumvirate split after due to their common goal being achieved- beat Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenv also decided not to back Salin's new idea 'Socialism in one Country' 1925, they also believed they held a strong enough majority in the Politburo, however arguing with Trotsky lost them support. Stalin who had not taken part in these debates his reputation stayed in tacked

Stalin and Bukharin formed the 'Duumvirate', Bukharin needed Stalin as he had control within the party, but Stalin needed Bukharin as he lacked authority as an intellect, Bukharin also controlled the media together they had power and authority to rule

Zinoviev and Kamenev feared Stalin and Bukharin more than Trotsky, so they united together in favour of both world revolution and rapid industrialization, together forming 'United Opposition', however due to this they were expelled from the party for 'factionalism'. Both Zinoviev and Kamenev publicly apologised for there 'crimes' and were re-admitted. Tortsky however refused and was exiled.

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Extra 3

1928, Stalin rejected the NEP, thus ending his relationship with Bukharin, going on to advocate rapid industrialization, which he had previously condemed with Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky out of the way he had control of the left wing, assuring support to those who opposed Bukharin's right wing

He circulated rumours that he was setting up an alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev, so Bukharin secretly meet up with them, right into Stalin's trap so he could acused him of factionalism.

He also delayed Bukharin's plane so that he would miss an important meeting, so Bukharin could undergo 'medical checks', he then went on to act without the Politburo and Centre Committee Policy restarting the policy of emergency grain requisitionig, this wenr on to sabotage the NEP and Bukharin's reputation.

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