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Key terms / phrases:
Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Berlin Airlift
Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic NATO
Warsaw Pact Cominform
The Marshall Plan was a great success. By 1950 the output of Western European
countries had increased by 25%.
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were clear signs that the Americans had
no intention of returning to the isolationism of 1919. This was reinforced by their
action in defeating the Berlin Blockade.
Suspicions between East and West had been deepened in 1949 the 3 Western
zones of Germany (including West Berlin) became known as the Federal Republic of
Germany, with its own elected government. In response, the USSR turned its zone
into the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) with a communist government.
Not only were the Western sectors of Germany joined,
but the West also formed a large military alliance.
In 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
(NATO) was formed. It was made up of the USA, Canada,
Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Iceland, Luxembourg,
Italy, Norway, Denmark and Portugal. Greece and Turkey
joined in 1952 and West Germany in 1955.
All members agreed to go to war if any one of them was attacked.
1949 1952 1955 1982
Belgium Greece West Germany Spain
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Stalin's response to the Truman Doctrine had been to strengthen his
hold on Eastern Europe. All non-communists were driven from office
and Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) helped all European
communist parties, including those in France and Italy, to work and plan
This is a British cartoon,
dated 2nd March 1948,
commenting on the spread of communism in
Europe. The caption reads, " WHO'S NEXT
TO BE LIBERATED FROM FREEDOM,
1. Can you briefly explain the message
behind this cartoonist's work?
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With West Germany as part of a strong military alliance
Again, the Soviets and East Europeans signed the Warsaw
Pact to form a defensive alliance controlled by the Soviet
Union. Six years on, this was viewed by the West as the
USSR's response to NATO.…read more