Microphone Mastersheet

All you could possibly want to know about microphones (sort of)

All I'm missing out is perhaps a more comprehensive list of models it might be useful to know 

HideShow resource information
Preview of Microphone Mastersheet

First 403 words of the document:

Things to remember when talking about microphones:
How microphones work
Main types of microphones and their uses
Polar patterns
Mic level and line level
Microphone Impedance
Microphone Frequency Response
The History and Development of the Microphone
How do microphones work?
Microphones are transducers, devices which convert one type of
energy to another. They convert acoustical sound waves into
electrical audio signals.
Different types work in different ways, but they all have one part in
common: the diaphragm. This is a thin piece of material which
vibrates when it is struck by soundwaves, causing other components
in the microphone to vibrate and convert the sound waves into
electrical signal.
Types of Microphones
Types of microphones can be split into two areas; 1) The type of
conversion technology they use (dynamic, condenser, ribbon,
crystal) and 2) The type of application they are used for. (general use,
specialised, based on properties such as directional properties,
frequency response and impedance.)
Dynamic Microphones: versatile, designed for general purpose use,
sturdy, can be dropped, better suited to handling high volume levels.
They work by: using a wire coil and a magnet to create the audio
signal ­ the diaphragm is attached to the coil ­ which when it
vibrates past the magnet a current is created. Also to note, a dynamic
microphone is a loudspeaker in reverse.
Condenser Microphones: Stronger audio signal than dynamic, more
sensitive and responsive than dynamics, not ideal for high volumes
as they will distort, will break if dropped. They work by:
capacitance: two plates with voltage between them, one working as a
diaphragm made of light material, another plate behind it serves as
the capacitor, the distance between the two plates changes the
Polar Patterns
The polar pattern of a mic is its sensitivity to sound relative to the
direction/angle the sound comes from.
Cardioid Polar Pattern: Most sensitivity at the front, least at the
back, some at the sides. Looks like an upside down heart. Isolates
unwanted ambience and more resistant to feedback than
Omnidirectional Polar Pattern: Equal sensitivity at all angles, can be
really helpful when picking up ambience but it far more sensitive to

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Hypercardioid: Eliminates most sound from sides and rear, so
appears like a narrower cardioid pattern from the front. Also has a
little bit of sensitivity at the back. Works like a cardioid but better at
isolating one very particular sound source ­ it can pick up sound quite
well from a distance. Mic HAS to stay pointed at the subject though
or audio will be lost ­ also can sound unnatural due to lack of
ambience.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

It's characteristic of all microphones that some frequencies are
exaggerated and some are attenuated. A frequency response
favouring higher frequencies means the resulting output will sound
more trebly than the original sound.
Frequency response is shown using a chart and is referred to as the
frequency response curve. X axis is frequency (Hz) and Y axis is
decibels (dB).…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Music Technology resources:

See all Music Technology resources »See all resources »