AS Psychology revision - memory

I've uploaded this in a nice PDF format, just in case people's computers have trouble with word.

So, this is pretty much everything you need to know about memory for AS AQA A psychology - you'll need to know about attachments and research methods as well, but I'm going to start working on documents for those soon. :D I've pretty much taken the important stuff from my notes with bits from the textbook to expand on it, but it's a bit more organised than my class notes and more manageable than the textbook. If anything is missing or incorrect, or if something doesn't make sense, then let me know.

Also - sorry if the random colours of the text aren't to your taste, after glancing at large chunks of text I was horrified that it was all in black so I had to mix it up a bit. :D

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 08-12-11 20:08
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Page 1

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What is memory?

Memory is a process of retaining information after the original thing is no longer present. In order
for this to happen, there are three stages: encoding (putting information in), storage (maintaining
and holding the information) and retrieval (remembering and extracting).



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were asked to write them down measure STM, and one to
as they appeared, but the measure LTM. He used lists of
presentation was too fast to words and found that the type
keep up with, so the of error made depended on
information had to be held in…

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names and 78% of the faces.
This suggests that LTM lasts a
very long time.

So, in summary...

SM (sensory memory) STM LTM
Encoding Stores info from the Acoustic or visual Semantic.
environment through
the senses. Stored
according to which
sense it is received by.
Capacity Attention mechanism Limited…

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The sensory memory constantly takes in information from the environment through the senses. This
holds information only very briefly. If the person focuses their attention on something in their
sensory memory, this is transferred to short-term memory. With repeated rehearsal, this can be
transferred to long-term memory, where it…

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The working model of memory attempts to show how the STM works.

Central executive

Limited capacity.
Can process information from any sense modality.
Responsible for a range of important control processes e.g. switching attention between
tasks, selecting relevant information, retrieving information from LTM, monitoring and…

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Articulatory process

Active rehearsal system.
Words maintained by subvocal repetition (repeating it in your head).

Episodic buffer

Provides temporary storage.
It can hold information which is limited in capacity and needs refreshing.
It is multi-dimensional, i.e. visual, acoustic, and possibly smell and taste.
Allows information to move to and…

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Evaluation of the working memory model

Explains the word length effect as shown Central executive component is vague
by Baddeley. and doesn't really explain anything.
Accounts for why brain damaged Merely seen as `attention' and allocation
patients can show partial STM difficulties of resources.
e.g. only one…

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Long-term recall

What is eyewitness testimony?

Eyewitness testimony (EWT) is the evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime ­
with a view to identify the perpetrator of the crime. The accuracy of the eyewitness recall may be
affected during initial encoding, subsequent storage…

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Collided 39.3
Bumped 38.1
Hit 34.0
Contacted 31.8

These results show that the words used in a question can affect people's answer, because they are
leading questions.

Loftus et al. (1978)

The aim of the study was to find if misleading questions affect recall. Participants were shown slides

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The getaway car will have a driver inside.

This can influence a person's recall of events later ­ they forget details, so their memory fills in the
gaps with things they would expect e.g. they were wearing dark clothing.

Anxiety and its effect on accuracy of EWT

Anxiety is…


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