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Dependent variable = what you
are measuring
Independent variable = the two
(or more) conditions which are
directly manipulated by the
experimenter to test their effects on
the DV
If you wanted to test the effect of
different types of music on study:
The operationalized DV would be
getting students to do a worksheet
and see how well they do
The IV would be: listening to
classical music, rock music, pop
music, hip hop etc.…read more

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Duration of STM:
This is how long a memory lasts before it is no longer
STM does not last very long and cannot hold much
Most people rehearse the things they want to remember i.
e. a phone number, hoping it will get into the LTM and they
will be able to remember it
Duration of LTM:
Memories that last from 2 hours+
Shepard (1967) tested duration of LTM by showing
articipants 612 memorable pics, one at a time, an hour
later they were shown some of the pictures and almost
perfect recognition. 4 months later, they remember 50%…read more

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Peterson and Peterson (1959) conducted a
study on 24 students at their uni:
The experimenter said a nonsense trigram to
participants followed by 3 digit number i.e. TGV 697
As soon as the participant saw the nonsense trigram,
had to backwards from that number in 3s or 4s, until
told to stop
Then were asked to recall the nonsense trigram
They were told to count backwards to stop them
using memory improvement techniques
Participants remembered 80% when there was a
3 second interval but 2% when there was an 18
second interval
Showed that the STM lasts only about 20 seconds
But Nairne et al. said STM can last up to 96 seconds…read more

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Capacity = the measure of how much can be
held in memory, measured in terms of `bits'
of information
Encoding = is the way information is changed
to so it can be stored as a memory
Acoustic Semantic Visual
encoding (meaning of encoding
(sounds) the (images)
Duration Measured in Measured in hours, days &
seconds/minutes years
Capacity Less than 7 chunks Unlimited
Encoding Acoustic or visual Semantic…read more

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Experiment on pg. 7
Capacity of STM:
Miller (1956) came up with the magic
number `7±2'
You remember 5 words, just as well as you
can remember 5 letters, this is because of
chunking This is grouping sets of digits or
letters into chunks
However, Simon (1974) said that the size of the
chunking does affect how many chunks you can
remember. He found that people have a shorter
memory span for larger chunks.
Cowan (2001) however said that STM is likely to
be limited to 4 chunks…read more

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