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Everyone has a different way of encoding information. First information received is stored. This
happens so we can retrieve it at a later date. If we cannot retrieve it, it means we have forgotten
it. The key difference between short-term memory and long-term memory is the amount of

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Bower and Springston (1970)

Aim: to test effects of chunking

Method: had two groups of participants. Control group was presented with letters such as: FB,
IPH, DTW, AIB and M. Experimental group was given the same letters but they were grouped
differently: FBI, PHD, CIA and IBM. When grouped like…

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you will remember it better. They proposed that we process information at two different levels:
deep and shallow.

Craik and Tulving (1975)

Aim: to see if the level at which information is processed has an effect on a person's memory.

Method: Told participants that their study was to test speed…

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Method: Participants given `war of the ghosts' to read. Once they read it they were asked to recall
everything they could about the story (over varying amounts of tine).

Results: found that majority of people added their own meaning to the story and reconstructed
their memories to try and make…

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Amnesia- memory loss that is usually causes by physical brain injury but can also be caused by a
traumatic, emotional event.

Anterograde amnesia- cannot learn new information but can remember what happened before

Retrograde amnesia- cannot recall events before trauma but can learn new information

Eye witness testimony


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Practical implications of this research is that lawyers/police should avoid asking leading questions
to the witness.

Improving memory

Several ways to `improve' memory are:

Rehearsing information
Encoding information
Giving it more meaning

Encoding information simply means changing information so that it can be stored. Three of the
wyas in…

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Conclusion: recall of information is improved if it occurs in the context which it was learned.


One method of elaboration is method of loci, where you visualise what you have to remember in a


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