Medicine through time in-depth timeline

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ROMAN BRITAIN TO 1350
450 BC GREEK HIPPOCRATES ­ Theory of 4 Humors
160 AD ROMAN GALEN- Theory of Opposites
MIDDLE AGES 1350-1500
1348 THE BLACK DEATH
Gods punishment
Plants
Plots- witches/Jews
Prayer
Burning herbs
Isolation
Cleaning
Charms
RENAISSANCE 1500-1750 (ROMAN AND GREEK IDEAS REDISCOVERED)
*REFORMATION CHURCH SPLIT- LOST POWER*
1454 JOHANN GUTENBERG PRINTING
Quicker
Cheaper
Spread knowledge
Further investigation
1476 CAXTON SET UP FIRST PRINTING PRESS
1516 GALEN'S `ON ANATOMICAL PROCEDURES'
1527 PARACELSUS BURNT GALEN'S BOOKS
Inaccurate
Rejected Theory of the Four Humors
1531 JOHANNAS GUINTER PUBLISHED LATIN TRANSLATION OF `ON
ANATOMICAL PROCEDURES'
Had been lost in the west ­ fall of Rome
1543 VESALUIS `THE FABRIC OF THE HUMAN BODY'
Based on human dissections- Galen's books= wrong
Heart; liver (5 lobes it has 2); lower jaw (2 bones it has 1)
*Challenges Galen's theories*

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DISECTION:
More common
Questions old ideas
Vinci/Vesalius detailed drawings (instead of Galen's instructions- from
pigs)
1628 WILLIAM HARVEY `ON THE MOTION OF THE HEART AND BLOOD IN
ANMIALS'
Blood circulates- pump
Identified difference between veins/arteries
Comparative studies on animals and humans
Live dissections…read more

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Proved WHY Galen was wrong*
Thomas Sydenham- English Hippocrates- stressed close observation of patients
and symptoms- new disease Scarlet fever
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1650-1750
1660 SCIENCE BECOMESE POPULAR- ROYAL SOCEITY OF LONDON
ENCOURAGES
Exchanged ideas
Encourages observation
Accurate recording
1665 PLAUGE RETURNED
Still used same treatments as in 1350s
1676 SYDENHAM `MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS'
1673 VAN LEEUWENHOEK MICROSCOPE - BACTERIA
Bigger/clearer magnification
`Animalcules' shared and described with RSL
NOT ALWAYS ACCEPTED
RELUCTATNT TO CHANGE
REFUSED TO ACCEPT GALEN HAD MADE ERRORS
SURGEONS STILL TRAINED GALEN'S THEORIES
HARVEY'S…read more

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IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS/ADVANCES IN EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY…read more

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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1750-1900
Rapid expansion ­ factories attracted workers from rural areas ­ new
methods limited jobs
Working and living conditions:
Long hours
Airless
Dangerous
Crowded/cramp/damp
Several families to a house
Sewers- rivers- drinking water
DIPHTHERIA/SMALLPOX/TB = KILLERS/SPREAD BY TOUCH/EASILY
SMALLPOX- KILLER (some survived if had mildly first time) CHINA- inoculated
1721 LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGUE TURKEY- INCOLUATED KIDS
Smallpox parties ­ inoculated together ­ not everyone afford
Doctors performed badly ­ failed
1796 EDWARD JENNER INOCULATED JAMES PHIPPS WITH COWPOX- DIDN'T
GET SMALLPOX
1798…read more

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Allowed taking bodies ­ died in workhouse (not claimed)
Slowed down grave robbery ­ dissection more available)
1832 CHOLERA
CHOLERA/TYPHOID= KILLER/EPIDEMICS/SPREAD B SEWAGE/EASILY
Cures for cholera= prayer, cleaning house, whitewashing walls with lime,
burning, charms
1842 CHADWICK'S PUBLIC HEALTH REPORT `DISEASE IS THE REASON FOR
POVERTY'
Campaigned for improved living conditions for poor - cholera
1848 1st PUBLIC HEALTH ACT
Board of health
Towns the right to appoint Medical officer of health
1853 SMALLPOX VACCINATION COMPULSORY
1854 SNOW'S LINK WITH CHOLERA AND DIRTY WATER
Mapped…read more

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SANITARY ACT
Following cholera outbreak - inspectors
1867 REFORM ACT GAVE WORKING CLASS MEN VOTE
1871 JOSEPH LISTER USED PENICILLIN TO FIGHT INFECTION IN PATIENT
1872 ANDERSON SET UP NEW HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN
1874 ANDERSON SET UP LONDON SCHOOL OF MEDCINE FOR WOMEN
1875 ARTISANS' DWELLINGS ACT
Towns right to buy slum housing/knock it down for better homes
1875 PUBLIC HEALTH ACT
Towns must have to have a medical officer/Board of Health
1875 ROBERT KOCH (AND TEAM OF RESEARCHERS) TESTED WHETHER BACTERIA CAUSED DECAY
Funded…read more

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RONTGEN DISCOVERED X RAYS
1898 MARIE/PIERRE CURIE DISCOVERED RADIUM
1901 BLOOD GROUPS
1906 SCHAUDINN AND HOFFMAN SYPHILIS MICROBE
1909 EHRLICH FIRST MAGIC BULLET
1919 MINISTRY OF HEALTH
1922 FLEMMING DISCOVERED LYSOZYME (found in tears)
Killed germs but not causing disease and infection
1928 STAPHYLOCOCCI (germs that made wounds septic)
Chance ­ noticed mould growing on petri dishes
No germs growing near mould
More he grew ­ more deadly germs it killed
Identified to belonging to the penicllium family ­ tried to purify `juice'
- chemical…read more

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Tried to produce pure penicillin ­ small amount produced ­ freeze
drying ­ tested on mice - couldn't mass manufacture
1939 WAR BROKE OUT
Men die infections rather than wounds
Florey pointed out to British gov ­ too involved making explosive
Approached US ­ unsuccessful
1941 PENICILLIN SUCCESSFULLY TESTED ON HUMAN
1941 PEARL HARBOUR ­ US gave financial help
1942 BEVERIDGE REPORT ­ blueprint for NHS
1943 MASS PRODUCTION BEGAN
1944 ENOUGH TO TREAT ALL WOUNDED ALLIED FORCES IN EUROPE
1948 NHS SET UP
Demand…read more

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WOMEN AND MEDICINE
BEFORE 1500- few trained doctors, rely on family/healers ­ women
Role pre 1500
Worked in all areas
Egypt ­ wall paintings ­ assisting at birth
Egyptian doctors train daughters (if had no sons)
Greece- allowed to practice as doctors ­ linked to Asclepios god of
healing (Hygenia and Panacea)
Allowed to practise in Islamic world
Collapse of Roman= greater reliance of informal medicine
Medieval Europe-improper for men to treat women
Church controlled ­ more formal - medical schools late 11th C
DEVELOPMENTS…read more

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