McCarthy and the red scare -cold war

Notes sumnmary of McCarthy era

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Unit 3 The USA (19451970) ~ Divided Union ~
Topics: ~
McCarthyism & the Red Scare
Civil Rights 19451970
Protest movements: Students & Women
The Cold War
Question: why was there a `Cold War' between the USA & the USSR after 1945?
Characteristics of Cold War
>>Espionage (Spying)
>>Nuclear Arms Race
>>Space Race
>>Loans & Aids
Conflicting Ideologies
Before the war, many countries could claim to be super powers: USA,
By 1945 only 2 clear superpowers remained: The USA & USSR conflicting
Before 1945~MULTIPOLAR
After 1945~ BIPOLAR
~ Democracy
~ Free elections & many political parties
~ Industry & agriculture in private hands
~ Individual freedoms & freedom of speech
~ Dictatorship
~ Only communist party allowed
~ Industry & agriculture in the state's hands
~ No individual freedom & no freedom of speech
~ Logo: Hammer with a stickle
Mutual Mistrust
The USA mistrusted the USSR because:

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Communism threatened the American way of life
~ Communism was spreading across the world (in Eastern Europe &
~ Stalin (Joseph Stalin aka `Uncle Joe') was a vicious dictator whose
Leadership had led to the deaths of millions
~ Stalin signed the NaziSoviet Pact in 1939
The USSR mistrusted the USA because:
~ Communists believed capitalism was unfair
~ The West intervened against the Communists in the Russian Civil War
~ Stalin was annoyed that the Allies were slow to open the `Second
Front'…read more

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The main reason for all the tension was because the USA & the USSR had clashing
views on how a country should run. For example, the USA was a capitalist country
that believed in dictatorship. These 2 ideas were too different so the USA & the
USSR clashed.
Causes of the Cold War include Russia's expansion into East Europe, which made
the USA fear communist expansion even more. Also, Truman's hatred for Stalin
caused even more tension.…read more

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President Truman was unsure of the act but didn't vet it evidence of the
suspicious climate.
~Julius & Ethel Rosenberg were arrested& charged with espionage (passing
atomic secrets to the USSR)
~Both sentenced to death &executed in 1953
~Both protested innocent & refused to cut deals that may have spared their lives
~Their guilt remains a cause of debate but can be compared with Hiss' case as
symptomatic of the era.…read more

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McCarthyism ended in 1954 for several reasons:
>>Influential opposition to McCarthy's activities grew from the likes of some
Senators, Hollywood figures & newspapers like the Washington Post & New York
>> In 1954, McCarthy accused 45 army officers of being communist spies. The
public did not like the armed forces being criticised.
>> The subsequent hearings were televised & McCarthy's rude, bullying & abusive
manner contrasted badly with the army attorney, Joseph Welsh, who was polite
throughout.…read more


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