Linguistic and literary features

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English lang and lit revision
Linguistic and literary features
Linguistic features
Interactive features of conversation
Phatic conversations: small talk that frequently opens and closes
conversations. Its function is social rather than informative.
Turn taking: differences in the number/length of turns of speakers.
Consider if the turns are equal or even or if there are imbalances.
Adjacency pair: basic unit of conversation: utterance and its response.
Question and answer: common adjacency pair
Back channel behaviour: short encouraging words used by the listener to
indicate that they want the speaker to continue or that they are listening
such as `mmm', `uh-huh' and `really'
Agenda setting: the person who controls the topic of conversation is the
agenda setter of the conversation.
Dominance: the speaker who says the most either by having the longest
turns or the most turns. Also can be indicated by the type of utterance
(imperative and interrogatives) and the tone of speech.
Modes of address: how speakers address each other. Formal/informal,
Theories of speech
Grices' maxims
-Quantity: give the right amount of conversation. Make your contribution
as informative as possible but don't make your contribution more
informative as is appropriate.
-Quality: try to make your contribution one that is true. Don't say that for
which you lack adequate evidence
-Relevance: be relevant
-Manner: be clear, avoid ambiguity
Often speakers don't abide by these maxims even though they are needed
for a successful conversation. The speakers often flout with these terms
before departure. Flouting is a deliberate deviation from the norm. Violate
is the unintentional deviation from the norm.
Leech's politeness principles
Tact maxim: minimise the cost to other and maximise the benefit to other by
changing an imperative to a declarative.

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English lang and lit revision
Approbation maxim: minimise dispraise of other and maximise praise of
other by changing a direct negative comment to a suggestion and then to a
positive comment.
Lakoff's politeness theory
-don't impose
-give options
-make others feel good
Brown and Levinson's face theory
Face refers to our self image
Positive face: our need to be liked and accepted
Negative face: our right not to be imposed on
Politeness involves to the speaker showing some awareness of each other's
face needs.…read more

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English lang and lit revision
syntax- sentence structure
elliptical utterances
Literary features
figurative language
iambic pentameter
narrative voice…read more



Really good was not even aware of the 'gender' theory at all my teachers haven't taught me that :D 

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