Key Terms

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  • Key Terms
    • Phonetics, phonology and prosodics
      • Phonology; the spund system
      • Phonetics; the ways that sounds produced by users of that system are produced
      • Phoneme: the basic unit of sound
      • Diphthong: a vowel sound that is the combination of two seperate sounds, where a speaker glides from one to another
      • Voicing: the act of the vocal chords either vibrating or not in he production of a constant sound
      • Place of articulation: the position in the mouth where a consonant sound is produced
      • Manner of articulation: the extent to which airflow is interrupted by parts of the moth in the production of consonant sound
      • Syllable: a sound unit with a vowel at its centre
      • Accent: a regional veriety of speech that differs from other regional varieties in terms of pronounication
      • Sound iconicity: the use of the sound sstem to mirror form or meaning
      • Accommodation: the ways that individuals adjust their speech patterns to match others
      • International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): an internationally recognised system of phonetic transcription
      • How speakers use variations in pitch, intonation,volume and speed depending on situational aspects
      • How the IPA can be used to represent and talk about different aspects of the sound system
    • Pragmatics
      • Implicature: an implied meaning that has to be inferrd as a result of a conversational maxim being broken
      • Inference: the understanding of implied meanings
      • Irony: using language to signal an attitude other than what has been literally expressed
      • Deixis: words that are context-bound where meaning depends on who is using them and where and when they are being used
        • Temporal deixis: Refers to time e.g. now, then
        • Spatial deixis: Refers to surroundings e.g. here, there
        • Personal deixis: Refers to a being/s e.g. I, you, we
      • Speech acts: communicative acts that carry meaning beyond the words and phrases used within them, e.g. apologies & promises
      • Politeness: the awareness of others' needs to be approved of and liked (positive politeness) and/or given freedom to express their own identity and choices (negative polietness)
      • Face: the concept of how all communication relies on presenting a 'face' to listeners and audiences, and how face-threatening act (the htreat to either positive or negative face) and the management of positive and negative face needs contribute to interaction
      • Cooperative principles in conversation: how interaction is gnerally based upon various kinds of cooperative behaviour beween speakers
      • The implied meanings of words, utterances and speech acts in their specific contexts
      • How text recievers draw inferences from others' language uses
      • The influence of different contexts on the meanings of communicative acts
      • How attitudes, values and ideologies can be signalld through language choices
      • How language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
      • How language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
    • Discourse
      • The ways in which whole texts (written, spoken and multimodal)  are constructed at a level beyond the word, phrase, clause and sentence
      • Discourse Structure: how a text is structured overall (i.e. how its parts are assembled). E.g. a question and answer format; problem - solution structure; narrative structure; adjacency pairs in aspoken interaction
      • How references are made within and between texts using cohesive devices and referencing narrative structures in texts
      • How texts are related to and contribute towards wider beliefs, ideolgies and values in society
      • Discourse markers: words, phrases or clauses that help to organise what we say or write e.g. OK, So
      • Adjuncts: non-essential elements of clauses (usually adverbials) that can be omitted
      • Disjuncts: sentence adverbs that work to express an attitude or stance towards material that follows e.g. Frankly, Sadly
      • Narrative structures: how events, actions and processes are seuenced when recounting a story
      • Anaphoric reference: making reference back to something previously identified in a text (often using pronouns to refer to an already established reference point
        • Cataphoric reference: making reference forwards to something as yet unidentified in a text
      • Cataphoric reference: making reference forwards to something as yet unidentified in a text
      • Exophoric reference: making reference to things beyond the language of a text itself
        • Endoophoric reference: making reference to things within the language of the text
      • Endoophoric reference: making reference to things within the language of the text
      • Interdiscursivity: the use of discourses from one field as part of another
      • Critical discourse analysis: the use of linguistic analysis to explore the ideolgies, positions and values of texts and their producers
    • Grammar
      • Morpheme: the smallest grammatical unit, either a root o an affix
        • Root morpheme: a morpheme that can stand on its own as a word
        • Affix: a morpheme that combines with a root morpheme to create anew word
      • Head word: the central word in a phrase which gives the phrase its name and may be modified by other words
      • Clause: a group of words centred around a verb, which may be either grammatically complete or incomplete
        • Active voice: a clause where the agent (doer) of an action is the subject
        • Passive voice: a clause where the patient (the entity afected by an action) is in the subjct position, and the agent either follows or is left out
      • Aspect: another element of marking the time of an event, by specifying whether they are progressive (ongoing) or perfective (completed)
      • Phrase: a group of words centred around a head word
      • Tense: how the time of an event is marked (usually through verb inflection): past, present & future
      • Coordination: the joining of two or more independent clauses via co-ordinating conjunctions. Single words and longer phrases can also be co-ordinated
      • Modification: the adding of additional words to provide more detail to a head word in a phrase eiher before or after it
      • Sentence: a larger unit of meaning which may be former of a single clasue or several clauses
      • Subordination: the joing of two or more clauses where only one is independent and the others dependent
      • Sentence function: the purpose a sentence fulfils in a communciation; as a s statement, question, command or exclamation. These are also referred to many grammar books as declaratives, interrogratives, imperatives and exclamatives
      • Word class: the grammatical category into which words can be placed, inc. noun, adjective, verb, adverb, determiner, pronoun, preposition, conjunction
    • Graphology
      • the visual aspects of text design and appearance
      • How text producers use aspects of text design to help create meaning, e.g. through the use of layout, space, typographical & orthographical features & colour
      • How images are used on their own or in conjunction with writing and osund as multimodal texts as represent ideas, individuals or groups
      • How variation in text design reflects variation in language use within individuals and groups and across time, and as a result of advances in technology and shifting cultural practices
      • Layout: the way in which a text is physically structured
      • Typographical features: the features of fonts used in texts such as font type, size and colour
      • Orthographical features: the features of the writing system such as spelling, capitalisation and punctuation
      • Multimodal texts: texts that rely on the interplay of different codes (e.g. the visual, the written and the auditory) to help shape meaning
    • Lexics and Semantics
      • The denotative and connotational meanings of words
      • How meanings are constructed through the use of figurative language such as metaphor
      • Sense relationships between words through the concepts of semantic filelds, synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms
      • How individuals and groups vary vocabulary choices according to audience and purpose, and how levels of formality may vary according to these contextul factors
      • How speakers may use specialist registers and examples of jargon
      • How speakers sociolects and dialects reflect variations according to group memebership and geographical religion
      • How variation in text design reflects variation in language use between individuals, groups, communities and nations
      • How new words are formed through the process of neology, for example; through blending, compounding, and the forming of acronyms, initialisms and eponyms
      • How words and their meanings change over time, for example through narrowing, broadening, amelioration, pejoration, and semantic reclamation
      • Denotative and connotational meanings: the literal (denotative) and associated (connotational) meanings of words
      • Figuritive language: language used in a non-literal way in order to describe something in anothers terms e.g. simile or metaphor
      • Semantic fields: groups of words connected by a shared meaning
      • Synonyms: words that have equivalent meanings
      • Antonyms: words that have cintrasting meanings
      • Hypernyms: words whose meanings contain other meanings e.g. animal contains dog, cat, fish etc
      • Hyponyms: words that can be included in a larger, more general category e.g. car, bus, plane are hyponyms for hypernym transport
      • Levels of formality: vocabulary styles include slang, colloquial, taboo, formal and frozen levels
      • Jargon: a technical vocabulary associated wtih a particular occupation or activity
      • Sociolect: a language style associated with a particular geographical religion
      • Neology: the process of new word formation, including the following: blends, compounds, acronyms, initalisms, eponyms
      • Semantic change: the porcess of words changing meaning, including the following: narrowing, broadnening, amelioaration, pejoration, semantic reclamation
      • The vocabulary system of English
    • Additional shorter defintions
      • Audience: the recievers or intended receivers of a text
        • The concept of an ideal audience/reader is often found in critical discourse. Texts might also have multiple audiences.
      • Discourse: used in many different ways in language study. Can be used to refer to a mode of a language e.g. spoken/written discourse, a register, a way of thinking about & presenting something e.g. representing language using a discourse of decay
      • Foregrounding: the way in which texts emphasise key events or ideas trough the use of attention-seeking devices e.g. lexis, semantics, phonolgy or grammar. That either repeat content (parellelism) or break established patterns (deviation).
        • Deviation may be external: breaking from the normal conventions of language use, for example in the use of nonsense words or ungrammatical constructions
        • Deviation may be internal: breaking from a pattern that has previously been set up in the text for a striking effect
      • Poetic Voice: the way in which a sense of identity is projected through language choices so as to give the impression of a distinct persona with a personal history and set of beliefs and values.
        • Grammtical voice (active and passive) : is different concept and mentioned in the relvant section
      • Genre: the way of categorising and clasifying different types of texts according to their features or expected shared conventions
        • Genres come into being as the result of people agreeing about perceived similar characteristics in terms of content or style. Genres are fluid and dynamic and new genres continually evolve as a result of new technologies and cutural ractices.
      • Literariness: the degree to which a text dsplays qualities that mean that people see it as literary and as literature
        • However, since many so called 'non-literary' texts display aspects of creative language use that is often seen as a marker of being literary, it is best to think of literariness as a continuum rather than viewing exts as being absolutely 'literary' or 'non-literary'
      • Mode: the way in which language is communicated between text producer and text receiver and the physical channel through which this is carried out.
        • This could be spoken or written (visual or auditory channel). Mode also encompasses ideas around planning and spontaneity, distance between text producer and reciever, how transitory or long-lasting a text is. Mode is more than a binary oppsition, is sometimes visualised as a continuum & is contantly changing as new communication technologies blur the lines between older forms.
      • Narrative: a type of text or discourse that functions to tell a series of events. A narrative is the organisation of experience told by a narrator to any nmber of narratees. A narrative has two distinctive parts.
        • The story; the vents, places, characters and time of action that act as the building blocks of the narrative
        • The narrative discourse: the particular shaping of thos ebuilkding blocks into something worth telling through specific choices in language and structure

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